English 6.

DEBATE OF MAY 22, 1889.Question: "Resolved, That the United States should restore its shipping by subsidies."

Brief for the Affirmative.C. D. Wetmore and G. E. Wright.

Best general references: C. S. Hill's "Our Merchant Marine;" speech of John Roach, Boston, October 7, 1880. [Both in U. 14].

I. A national merchant marine is of the greatest importance to the commercial prosperity of the country-C. S. Hill's History of American Shipping, P. 132; Report of the Secretary of Treasury, 1872, p. 10.

II. A large merchant marine is essential to naval power-Kelley's Question of Ships, p 108; Brassey's British Navy, vol. 2. pp 317-320; Lalor's Cyclopaedia, vol. 2, p 987.

III. Our country should regain its former maritime prestige because of (a) our national instinct-speech of Eustis, Congressional Record, vol. 17, p 4083; (b) our geographical position-Overland Monthly, 1883, p 462.

IV. Subsidies will restore the hammer to the shioyard, develop commerce, and prove a boon to American labor-Report of select committee, 1882, p 109; H. A. Hill's American Shipping, p 29.

V. Subsidies will restore our merchan their shipping by subsidies-"Our Merchant Marin," pp 10-19, and 28; Report of select committee, 1870, p 7; House Ex. Doc., 45th congress, second session, vol. 8, p 9; (b) we have tried such a policy and have found it effective-Lindsey's Merchant Shipping, vol. 4, pp 194-228; speech of Hale in Cong. Record, vol. 17, p 4009.

VI. Without subsidies our steamship line cannot compete with the highly subsidized foreign lines-Thompson's "Protection," p 99; House Reports, 46th congress, second session volume 5, no. 1570.

Brief for the Negative.C. D. Gibbons and J. P. Nields.

Best general references:- Well's, Our Merchant Marine; Codman on Shipbuilders and Commerce.

I. American shipping interest can be restored without the cost of subsidies by a revision of the navigation law; primarily, by a revision in favor of the free purchase and ownership of vessels for foreign trade.- Well's Our Merchant Marine pp. 95-128; North American Review, vol. 142, pp. 481-484; Codman in Shipbuilders and Commerce phamphlets 4 and 2; Atlantic, vol. 53, p. 800.

II. Subsidies are objectionable, (a) artificial and temporizing expedients-Well's Our Merchant Marine, pp. 136-139. (b) have proved failures.- Well's, 138-140, 162-165, 113 115; (c) would be a tremendous cost.- Well's, p. 140; Codman, pp. 14, 18, 25; Congressional Globe, 1869-70, part 5, p. 3786; (d) profit would come wholly from subsidies.- Well's, pp. 140-142 (e) have proved and always will prove inducements to corrupt legislature.- Well's p. 139, Cong. Globe, 1869-70, part 5, p. 3860; (f) benefit one party at the expense of the whole country.- Well's, p. 141; Codman p. 15; Cong. Globe, 1869-70, part 5, p 3860; (g) would make shippers uneconomical and would destroy all competition.

III. It is not expedient to encourage capital to enter an occupation which we must pursue at a relative disadvantage.- Lindsay Merchant Shipping, III 83-187, IV. 163 180, 292, 316, 376; N. A. Rev., Oct. 1864.

IV. We have lost our former prestige on the ocean by natural causes; that position cannot be restored by the artificial means of subsidies.- Roach's View in Lynch's Rep.; Kelly, Question of Ships; Every Saturday, vol. X p. 170.