Brief for the affirmative:
W. PHINNEY AND H. R. SEARS.
Best general references: Congr. Record, Vol. 13, Part 3, pp. 1980, 2037, 2040, 2154; Vol, 19, Part 9, pp. 8249, 8256, 8295, 8303, 8328, 8342; Vol. 13, Part 3, p. 2608, (Senator Sherman's speech), pp. 2551-2 (President Arthur's veto message); Mason's veto power, 843 and App. A. Nos, 119, 129; No. Am. Rev. 134, p. 562; Nation, Vol. 28, p. 145; Scribner's, Vol. 13, p. 687.
I. The exclusion of the Chinese is at variance with the fundamental American principles: Nation, Vol, 34, p. 222, Vol. 28, p. 130. a. Contrary to the spirit of the Constitution; amendment XV. b. Indirect violation of the rights of the Chinese as expressed in the stipulations of the treaty of 1880: Treaties and conventions of the U. S. (ed., 1889), pp. 181-2, Art 1, Congr. Rec. Vol. 19, Part 9, p. 8299.
II. Chinese labor alone made possible the development of the West; Overland Monthly, Vol. 7, p. 120; Lippincott, Vol. 11, p. 219; Nation, Vol. 42, p. 272. a. By their work on transcontinental railroads; Lippincott's, Vol. 11, p. 224. b. In the mines; Lippincott's, Vol. 11, p. 219. e. In farming; Overland Mo., Vol. 4, p. 526. d. By the cheapness and efficiency of their labor in these and other occupations; No. Am, Rev., Vol. 134, p. 569; Vol. 148, p. 479.
III. Chinese labor is not harmful to American labor or institutions; No. Am. Rev., Vol. 148, pp. 476, 483; Lippincott's Vol. 11, pp. 219, 225. a. They do not immigrate in large numbers; Cong. Rec. 13, Part 3, p. 1982; No. Am. Rev. Vol. 134, pp. 567-8; Vol. 148, p. 478. b. They do not multiply after arrival; No. Am. Rev. Vol. 139, p. 258. c. They take only money, (and but little of that) out of the country and leave finished products; No. Am. Rev. Vol. 148, p. 482; Vol. 134, p. 564. d. They compete only with unskilled labor, and do not therefore affect the wages of skilled labor; No. Am. Rev., Vol. 148, p. 487. e. They are frugal, industrious, peaceable, and never "strike": Lippincott's Vol. 11, p. 220, and Vol. 2, p. 36; Nation Vol. 42, p. 272; No. Am. Rev. Vol. 148, p. 482.
IV. The Scott exclusion bill should be repealed because it is inadeqate in meeting the very purpose for which it was enacted-it does not exclude the Chinese: New York Tribune, Mar. 4 and April 17, 1890; New England Mag. Vol. 36, p. 1; Nation, Vol. 28, pp. 130, 145.
Brief for the Negative:
A. B. SIMONDS and A. SUTRO.
Best general references: Scribner's XII, p. 862; Cleveland's Message Oct. 1, 1888; Volume of Reports on "Chinese Immigration;" Overland VII, 414, 428; J. A. Whitney, "Chinese Question."
I. Some legislation excluding the Chinese is expedient; because the Chinese are a menace. a. Morally. 1. Barbarity of the Chinese character; J. A. Whitney, p. 21. 2. Inhumna treatment of women; Senate Report, 1876-'77, III. 3. Practice of gambling. 4. Degraded religion; Forum, VI, 201. 5. Utter disregard for oaths. 6. Criminality; T. J. Vivian in Scribner XII, 862. b. Socially. 1. Unhealthy Report, 1886. 2. Impossibility of amalgamation; Overl. Mo. VII, 429. 3. Contamination through opium smoking, leprosy, small pox; Harper's Mag. 42, 139. 4. Dangers to American youth of both sexes; Overal. VIII, 374. c. Politically. 1. Inability and unwillingness to become citizens; Senate Report 76-77, III. 2. Refusal to obey our laws; Nation, vol. 34, p. 337. 3. Secret system of slavery. d. Economically. Injuries to American labor. 1. Impossibility of competition with Chinese; Harper's, vol. 57, p. 927. 2. Gradual encroachment on all occupations; ibid. 3. Concentration of capital; Forum VI, 168. 4. Immigration of white labor discouraged; Senate report, '76-'77, III.
II. The Scott Act is the best ever enacted. a. Previous exclusion acts have been ineffective; Cleveland's Message, Oct 1, 1888. b. The Scott Act is efficient. c. The act is upheld by public opinion.
III. The act is constitutional. a. Precedents; Ware vs. Hylton; Florida Claim Case, etc. b. Authority of writers on International Law: Vattel, Wheaton, Woolsey, etc. c. Decision of U. S. Supreme Court: Chau Chong Ping vs. Collector of the Port of San Francisco.