God reveals himself to us in his revelations by a method of beginnings; beginnings used in the sense of the flowing stream, with ever fresh eddies and turns, ever starting some new action, and yet itself one continuous endless whole. Observe that this idea of repeated fresh starts does not in any way destroy the continuity of nature. Any study of her processes is but the making of new discoveries, and then in their light and the light of what has gone before, making fresh beginnings in the steady onward progress. No where does there come a break.
In the same way is life a series of fresh starts, of new beginnings, every week, every day, every hour even, making one. The great helpful moral end of this are the innumerable chances of recovery, of fresh starts, which are so needful in this life of ours. At night we lay down a burden that seems too heavy to again take up and how often have we in the morning been able to renew the task to pick up the burden and go on.
The lesson taught is the great affluence of God s resources. How all we see around us, the grass, the trees. and everything else on this earth, to the heavenly bodies above, proclaim His boundless wealth, and endless power of manifestation ! And what can we say of our daily mercies? - ever new incentives to effort, new aids for new cases. How can we help but believe from all this that our life here is but a beginning also, but the promise of an endless life, of a life to come after this one.
The anthems sung were: "Sing to the Lord"; Bunnett; "Save us, O God;" Webbe; "Holy Spirit, Come" Martin.
English 6.Debate for Thursday, Nov. 17, 1892.
Question: Resolved that the efficiency of the public service requires that no public affair take part in the management of parties or of campaigns.
Brief for the Affirmative.
B. H. ROUNSAVILLE and O. G. VILLARD.Best general references: Bryce's Am. Commonwealth. II. Chaps. 55, 67, 88; Lalors Cyclopedia, I. 478-485; Eight Report Civil Service Commission, June, 1884. p. 1. - 15; Forum, XIV, Oct. 1892, 201; Nation XLVIII. June 6, 1889, 467;
I. The claims of the public service are paramount to party allegiance, Lalor, I. 488, - (a) Elected primarily to serve the government.
II. Party management by public officials distracts their attention from good administration, - (a) Most government offices purely administrative. Eight Rep. Civ. Ser. Com., June 1891. p. 15.
III. Interference by officials tends to create powerful rings and bosses - (a) Foundation of Philadelphia Gas Ring: Bryce II. Chap. 88; - (b) Tweeds N. Y. Ring: Bryce II. Chaps. 63, 102;
IV. Political interference causes the deterioration of the public service - (a) Good men repelled, poor men attracted: Nation June 6, 1889. Bryce, Chap. 58; - (b) Conversion of public service into mere place hunting; Nation June 6, 1889. - (c) Condition of War Dept. Nov. 1892 - (d) Absence of cabinet officers in the late Campaign.
Brief for the Negative.
F. C. THWAITS AND F. L. YOUNG.Best general References: Atlantic Monthly LXV. 433 (April 1890), LXVI1. 252 (Feb. 1891); Sixth Report of U. S. Civil Service Commission (1889); pp. 1-8, 16.
I. The system proposed would, - (a) Violate rights of the individual. - (b) Be contrary to the traditions and institutions of our government. - (c) Be harmful to the public good. - (1) By keeping many of our best men out of politics. - (2) By throwing the control of politics into the hands of less able men.
II. In any case, elective officers and administrative officers (heads of departments, etc.) must be allowed to take action in politics. - (a) They are the oldest men in the party. - (b) They determine the issues and policy of the party. - (c) They must defend their measures and advance the party policy.
III. Nor should the restriction proposed be extended to the subordinate government officials. - (a) In the case of those under civil service rules. - (1) The incentive to political activity is removed. - (2) Their tenure of office depends on their efficiency. - (b) In the case of those still under the spoils system the evil would be removed. - (1) The incentive to political activity still remains. - (2) The official would resort to underhand means. - (3) The system proposed furnishes no guarantee of efficiency. - (c) The extension of the civil service rules to these men would be the only adequate remedy for the present evils.
IV. The system proposed would tend to prevent the extension of civil service reform. - (a) By appeasing those who demand reform, without really giving reform. - (b) By obscuring the real evil in our politics, viz. the spoils system, and hence delaying its eradiction.