Debate of May 3, 1894.Question: "Resolved, That United States Senators should be elected directly by the people.
Brief for the Affirmative.L. Coolidge and J. T. Kilbreth, Jr.
Best general references: Senator Turpie in Cong. Record, Vol. 23, pp. 77-80; Nation, Vol. 54, pp. 44-45.
I. (a) The people wish the reform. (b) The people are opposed to indirect elections, as shown by our experience with presidential electors.
II. It will insure better state and local government, by separating local questions from those of national policy.
III. It will improve the character of the Senate as (a) bribery would be less effectual; (b) the senators would be less dependent on the machine.
IV. Reasons for the selection of the present system no longer apply since there is no longer (a) a distrust of the people, (b) a jealousy of a central government.
Brief for the Negative.H. L. Cannon and W. S. Hockley.
Best general references: Federalist, LXIII; 5 Elliot's Debates, pp. 163, 166-70; Story: Constitution, SS 703-4; Senator Chandler in Cong. Rev., 52nd Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 3191-3201.
I. As the U. S. Senate is the most successful upper house in existence, it should not be changed without grave cause.
II. To be an independent force, the upper house must be constituted differently from the lower.
III. This is best accomplished by the present method. (a). It gives national representation to state governments as such. (b) It thus unites them more closely to the federal government and makes both state and federal govern-
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