Military members outnumbered civilians 4-1 on campus. Dunster, Eliot, Kirkland and Leverett Houses housed male military members, and some of the Radcliffe Quad residences were occupied by female division of the armed services.

While popular student activites such as the Harvard Band and The Crimson languished, campus military groups flourished. These groups included women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services (WAVES), Army Service Training Program (ASTP), Chaplains and the V-12, a group of men in the Navy who trained at Harvard.

As the military presence increase, subtle changes began to make themselves known.

The Hasty Pudding Club was reserved for officers and their guests. The Advocate officially dissolved, and the College instituted a full summer term in order to accelerate graduation of those hoping to join the war effort.

"My one year at Harvard at a very young age...and my desire to enlist as soon as I reached my eighteen birthday...has left me with a sense of unimportance in the records of Harvard," William L. Bell said in Fiftieth Annual Report of the Class of 1945.

"Two major events in my life did occur during the year," Bell continued. "One is having a sterling sliver medal recognizing a year with the Harvard Band. The other was acceptance into Navy flight school."

Every segments of the Harvard community made its contribution to the was effort. The Navy Wives Club met on the "second deck" of the Harvard Union. The Fine Arts Department offered courses in camoflauge, athletics were compulsory and an air-raid siren was placed atop Widener Library.

"Joint instruction" was a new phenomenon as women and men shared classrooms for the first time. However, if only female was enrolled in a class, "she had to sit outside in the hall" and listen to the lecture, according to Radcliffe alumna Priscilla G. Hopkirk '45. Radcliffe students still were not allowed to use most of Widener Library.

All vacations except Christmas were eliminated from the school calendar to cut down on domestic travelling.

Harvard Service News

The war meant changes for the Crimson as well.

On February 23, 1943, The Crimson launched a bi-weekly publication, The Harvard Service News. Later that year, The Crimson suspended publication in favor of the wartime-focused Service News.

"The Harvard Crimson will...return only when Harvard is once again a liberal arts college," the retiring Crimson executive board announced on May 21, 1943. "In a program that is primarily one of was training there is little time to publish the Crimson; indeed, there is small place for it in a college of uniforms."

"The need of news reporting remains, and this function will be performed by the Harvard Service News," The Crimson's announcement continued. Calkin said. "There were too few editors aroundto make us think it would be a good newspaper. Wewere afraid that it would lose its independence."

Undergraduate members voted to cede authorityto the graduate Board of The Crimson to "maintainthe continuity of the paper [the Service News] andto keep it from becoming a simple organ of theservices or the university," according to the 1943announcement.

The Service News was published twice a weekduring fall and spring terms and once a weekduring the summer term of 1944 and 1945. It didnot print editorials or opinion pieces, aside frommovie reviews and an occasional letter to theeditor.

Information the Campus

Although lacking the editorial content of TheCrimson, The Service News continued to report oncampus news, while reflecting Harvard's emphasison the war effort. Lead stories in 1944 included:"Navy Fifth War Loan Drive Begins July 1st,""Adams, Lowell in War Bond Drives," "ArmyTerminates McKinlock Lease," "Navy Aviation OpenAgain for Volunteers" and "Officers of Army AirForce to Occupy Dunster House."

Stories like these were interspersed withcoverage of football games, crew competitions,debate matches and the dating scene.

Profiles of attractive "'Cliffedwellers" werefrequent features, especially "Freshmanettes." Oneprofile of first-year Georganne Williamson wastitled "Southern Belle Takes Toll, WringsHarvardian Hearts; Gracious Georgane SweetensBrooks Tea." The caption of her picture read "HerDixieland charms thaw Cambridge frost."

At the end of the article, "vital statistics"were listed, including age, height, residence andpolitical party.

A profile of the Radcliffe "Sues"--Sue Hagler'46 and Suzanne Saucy '48--was titled "HarvardChanged, But '48 Has Board Date Selection; if youCan't Get A Radcliffe Girl--"

The punch line to the joke in the subhead,which was common at the time, was "try again."

Radcliffe alumna Hopkirk, who was a civilianstudent, said that the attitudes toward women onthe Harvard campus during her tenure were " ratherhumiliating."

Although she did not read the Service News orremember the profiles of Radcliffe students, shesays she is not surprised by the way in whichRadcliffe students were portrayed.

"I never would have been enthusiastic about[the profiles]," she says.

A gossip column titled "The Lucky Bag" gave thelocations of parties and names of people with astore of cigarettes which were rational at thetime.

"I'm going to miss helping to make everybody'sprivate life public," wrote one author of thecolumn upon leaving the staff in 1944.

Another edition of the column dealt with theMidshipman Dance. "Jim Grisham, head of the O.D.P.(Office of Date Procurement) has been wondering atthe lack of response for a date bureau but isgoing ahead with arrangements," the column said.

A series of cartoons also appeared in theService News, courtesy of the Navy War BondCartoon Services.

One Cartoon that ran in August 1944 featured aswab crying because he didn't have a girl to comehome to. When he says all he has is $5,000 in warbonds, buxom women surround him.

In another cartoon, the punch line is "Dames? Itreat 'em like War Bonds. I get a new one everymonth."

Selling Uncle Sam

The advertisements in the Service News focusedespecially on the war; ads for uniforms, lifeinsurance, employment for the spouses of officersstation at Harvard and innumerable war bond adscovered hundreds of column inches.

Most major clothing stores in the Harvard areasold uniforms, many promising tailoring as well.The Coop, Filene's Jordan Marsh, Scott andCompany, Smith-Gray Custom Tailor, J. Press andLeopold Morse Company were only a few of thosemarketing official Army and navy garb.

"Be ready for fall!" one Jordan Marsh ad urged."U.S. navy Officers' Uniforms..produced under thesupervision of the Navy Department."

Filene's ads featured a large drawing of a Navyofficer, commenting "You bet it's a lot of uniformBUT..a lot of MAN is going into it."

"Fine shoes for men and women in uniform," saidan ad for the Thayer McNneil store in Boston.

Local photography studios advertised theirservices to the military members in their newuniforms.

"Harvard studio portraits of men and women inuniform, no appointment necessary," read one ad.

Care packages to the "boys and girls inservice" could be sent anywhere in the world for$5. The Christmas party Pack had to be mailed byOctober 15, and could be ordered at the Coop.

Army and navy wives were offered employment atthe Coop and Conrad's, even if they were onlytemporarily stationed in Cambridge. The Red Crossalso placed help wanted ads.

"Graduate nurses urgently needed to care forthe sick and wounded men returning from overseas,"one Red Cross ad read. "September is Army Nurserecruiting month-4,000 more nurses must berecruited before October 1st."

Insurance companies promised "special lowpremium life insurance for Army, Navy and Marineofficers."

The Red Cross urged undergraduates to "make aGift of Life Itself to our fighting men" andcalled for an appointment to give blood. Numerousblood drives also took place on campus.

Bell Telephone System placed a series of adsdetailing their contribution to the war effort,including analyzing captured materials, supplyingphones for warships and laying down combattelephone wires. Western Electric rancomplementary ads.

"When U.S. Warships go into action, telephoneequipment transmits orders instantly, clearly,"one ad read. "For the huge battleship Wisconsin,Western Electric supplied two systems usingequipment designed by Bell TelephoneLaboratories."

Greyhound also paid for a series of ads whichemphasized the importance of Greyhound'scontribution to the war effort.

"I'm on the little end of the big push," one adread. "But I sure am wheelin' you G.I.'s aroundplenty here at home."

Even advertisements not directly aimed atofficers or discussing contributions of the wareffort reflected the difficulties of wartime.

"Quality unchanged by the War," one ad forRogers Peet Company, a clothing manufacture, said."Rogers Peet's Quality is as fine as ever. The Warhasn't changed it a bit."

"Bicycles not rationed," an ad for the bicycleexchange read. "Plenty on hand. pre-war parts andaccessories. "Douglas Shoes did not producefootwear for soldires, but at the bottom of theirads placed the line "Invest in victory-buy bonds."

Return to Normalcy

As the war drew to a close during the firsthalf of 12945, the military takeover of Harvardabated.

In January, Harvard returned to a two-teamcalendar. In April, the University relaxedadmission standards to facilitate veteranadmission. Kirkland House was opened to civiliansa week after the admissions office announced therelaxation.

The Harvard Service News ceased publishing in1946, when the The Harvard Crimson reappeared withit's first issue on Tuesday, April 9, 1946.

The April 9 issue read, "When [the executiveboard] suspended publication on May 27, 1943,[they] left [it] to a future board, the one thattakes office today."

The Crimson has published regularly ever since.Courtesy of The Harvard YearbookA group of army trainees perch on theterrace of Winthrop House (above). Studentofficers take a break underneath an elm in HarvardYard (right).