In her corner office, in the Expository Writing Program's ornate new building at 8 Prescott Street, Nancy Sommers is reading out loud in Italian.
Sommers, the director of Expos since 1994, doesn't speak Italian. But this week she's flying to Italy, where the University of Pisa has asked her to help design the country's first writing program for undergraduates. On the day before she leaves, Sommers is practicing the short thank-you speech she'll give to the Italian faculty when she arrives.
The trip abroad, into uncharted writing-program territory, is indicative of the new Expos. So, too, is the new look to Sommers' office, with tall windows looking out onto the Barker Center for the Humanities and with boxes still stacked against the teal walls since this summer's move from Vanserg Hall.
Since Sommers, who came to Harvard in 1987, took over as Expos director, the program has shifted focus.
Where once Expos sought only to teach first-years how to teach first-years how to write essays, the program now aims to impact all of writing at Harvard: "For Expos to be successful, it can't be an isolated freshman writing class," she says.
Moreover, Expos is embarking on a new study of undergraduate writing, following current students throughout their education to better understand how Expos can be improved.
Overall, Sommers has led the Expository Writing program into a newly-energized era, where the leadership can look beyond the narrow definition of the first-year class and into a downright global attitude.
The Writing Epicenter
Under Sommers, the Expos program, founded in 1872, has become more structured, with centralized procedures pervading both preceptor training and the semester-long course every first-year must take.
Preceptors can now stay only five years, instead of eight, a change Sommers defends by noting that "eight years is a long time in someone's career."
The program now features a strenuous application process for preceptors and a support system for them once they join Expos.
Gordon C. Harvey, the assistant director of Expos, runs a training program for new preceptors, a much-applauded feature added since Sommers took over.
The teachers also meet to read and critique each others' own writing.
And where the program once engendered feelings of distrust among preceptors, Expos teachers now say the working atmosphere is friendly.
"It makes teaching very exciting to feel that you are part of something new and possibly revolutionary on the academic front," says preceptor Peter Rand, an author and former writing teacher at Columbia University who joined Expos this fall. "In this atmosphere there is also a very warm rapport between preceptors."
Preceptors also increasingly have FINLANDhe said, is paradoxically leading to an increase in unemployment and economic difficulties in some parts of the world.
"A great portion of the world is still deprived politically and economically.... Many have nutritional needs," Ahtisaari said.
Ahtisaari called on all developed countries and global businesses to help stimulate the economics of the developing world.
"Trade, not aid, is as valid an objective as ever... Protectionism has no future," the president said.
To further stimulate international development, Ahtisaari advocated international cooperation on issues such as disarmament and environmental protection.
The president named the United Nations as an organization that has the capacity to help underdeveloped countries.
"That the United Nations needs streamlining and needs to become more effective we all agree," Ahtisaari said. "It encourages me that the United States is moving toward providing the economic support to the UN that it owes."
Ahtisaari worked extensively with the UN throughout the 1980s and 1990s in many capacities.
The president praised Secretary General Kofi Annan for his work.
"He is the first secretary general in history who is a manager," Ahtisaari said in an interview after the speech.
"I have a very high regard for him... therefore I think he should be supported," Ahtisaari added.
The president advocated the further development and action of other international organizations, such as the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Ahtisaari praised the EU--which Finland joined in 1995--for promoting "peace, stability and prosperity."
Northern European countries need to provide resources, trade and defense for NATO and the EU, according to Ahtisaari. Although Finland is not a member of NATO, Ahtisaari emphasized the organization's importance.
The president said in the interview that he thinks it is important for NATO troops to remain in Bosnia beyond 1998, the established date for withdrawal.
Ahtisaari said the job of the international community is to promote cooperation between the political parties in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Ahtisaari was elected president of Finland in February 1994, the first president to be elected by popular vote rather than through the electoral college system. His term ends in 1999.
He said in the interview that he has been approached to run again in 1999 but has not yet made a decision.
A number of Finns who live in the area attended the speech.
"I have never seen the president live," said Saku P. Aura, a Finnish graduate student at MIT. "[I came] out of curiosity.