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English VI.

NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED

DEBATE OF MARCH 28, 1888.Question: "Resolved, that Americans should be permitted to buy foreign built ships and to manage them under the American flag, and that no shipping subsidies should be granted."

Brief for the Affirmative.J. M. Hallowell and M. H. Clyde.

Best single reference: Report of Secretary of the Treasury for 1887, xliv, or Codman, "Free Ships."

I. We do not produce ships suitable for our foreign carrying trade; therefore they should be put on the free list: Wells. "Our Merchant Marine," ch. v., vii.

II. Our present policy is "vicious, inequitable and unjust" in that while purporting to protect American shipping it really ensures to foreigners a monopoly of our foreign carrying trade, and protects them in the enjoyment of it to our own detriment: Report of Secretary of Treasury, 1887, xliv.; Kelley, "Question of Ships;" Wells, "Our Merchant Marine."

III. Free raw materials for ships will go far towards enabling the American builder to supply the demand which free ships will create: Codman, "Free Ships."

IV. To subsidize our shipping would be to tax the people to support an industry which our own laws render unsuccessful.

Brief for the Negative.F. W. Knowles. G. W. Cram.

Best general reference: Hall's American Navigation, pp. 64-91.

I. We should build and manage our own ships exclusively.- (1) Because only in so doing can we gain the whole profit of our carrying trade: "Shall Americans build ships?" No. Am. Review, May, 1881, pp. 473-4; "American Shipping Interests," (pamphlet), pp. 6, 44, 48-51.- (2) Because, by so doing, we employ American labor, and use American materials: "American Shipping Interests," (pam.), p. 20.- (3) Because, in the long run, we can build as cheaply at home as we can buy or build abroad: John Roach, speech before Boston Board of Trade (pam); No. Am. Review, May, 1881, pp. 471, 473, 469; Letter to Hon. Samuel Shellabarger, by Roach, (pam.), pp. 1, 9-12, 17.- (4) Because such a policy is essential to national independence and prestige: John Roach, speech before Boston Board of Trade, (pam.); Letter to Shellabarger (pam.), pp. 1-2; "American Shipping Interests," pp. 2-11; No. Am. Review, May, 1881, pp. 470, 473, 481.

II. We should grant shipping subsidies-(1) Because they show good results: "Iron Steamships" (pam.), p. 9; Hall's American Navigation, pp. 64-91; No. Amer. Rev., May, 1881, pp. 477, 480-1.- (2) Because they would stimulate American industry in general-not benefit a favored few: Hall's "Navigation" and "Iron Steamships," entire.- (3) Because they are in harmony with the principle of "ruling America first for Americans, and for the rest of mankind afterwards" Penn. Monthly, March, 1880.- (4) Because they are a necessity in order to the establishment of an American merchant marine: "American Shipping Interests," pp. 53-4, and appendix, pp. 23-43.

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