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DEBATE OF MARCH 6, 1889.Question: "Resolved, That the United States should annex Canada."
Brief for the Affirmative.C. A. Bunker and F. E. Huntress.
Best general references: North Am. Review, vol. 136, p. 326; vol. 139, p. 42; Feb., 1889, 54-73; Forum, Jan., 1889, 451-464.
I. The interests of Canada are in the United States because of the large number of Canadian born who are residing here.- No. Am. Rev., vol. 136, p. 326; C. Richmond Smith on "Immigration" in Pol. Science Quar., June, 1888. (a) Canada, through these emigrants, is bound to the United States by the tie of mutual friendship.
II. Canadian independence would not be for the good of the United States.- "Continental Unity," in Boston Herald, Dec. 14, 1888. (a) There would be danger of disintegration of the Canadian Confederation.- No. Am. Rev., 142, 47. (b) A number of petty states on our northern border would cause many difficulties in international questions.
III. Union with Canada would remove all danger of invasion from the north in case of a war with England. (a) Canada was a base of operations in the war of 1812.- Johnston's Hist. of U. S., 176-180, 186-189, 192-193. (b) The protection on our northern frontier is lamentably weak.- Report of Secretary of War, 1885, 5-6.
IV. All disputes could have an immediate settlement. (a) The fisheries question would be settled forever. (b) Canada would no longer be a refuge for criminals.
V. The commercial advantages that the United States would receive from a union with Canada would be great.- No. Am. Rev. 139, 44; American 2, 213-214; 13. 393, 407-409; 14, 56; Forum, Nov. 1888, 241-256. (a) It would greatly increase trade.- W. H. Murray, "Continental Unity," Boston Herald, Dec. 14, 1888. (b) It would give New England advantages not before possessed.- Boston Herald, Feb. 22, 1889.
VI. Annexation would add greatly to the resources of this country, in wheat lands, forests, furs, fisheries, coal, iron, etc.- No. Am. Rev., Feb., 1889, 54-73; Science 3, 756; Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 133, 348 356, 363
VII. The country thus acquired would afford desirable homes for immigrants.- Contemporary Review, 42, 218-236; Westminster Review, 118, 7-16.
VIII. Annexation would give the United States complete control of the water routes of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
Brief for the Negative.Chas. D. Gibbons and Chas. M. Thayer.
Best general reference: Lord Lorne, on "Obstacles to Annexation."- Forum for February, 1889.
I. The United States has as much territory as is compatible with its safety.- Forum, Feb., 1889, p. 643.
II. The Canadians are a people, distinct from the people of the United States.- Lippincott's, vol. XII, p. 616.
III. The idea of government held by the Canadians would prevent them from supporting our institutions.- Canadian Monthly, vol. 17, p. 250; N. A, Review, vol. 133, p. 158.
IV. Their ideas of social distinction would prevent them from assimilating themselves to our modes of life.- N. A. Review, vol. 133, p. 163.
V. There is a strong national feeling in Canada opposed to annexation.- Forum, Feb., 1889.
VI. If Canada were annexed the Canadians would come in as a nation, not as individuals.
VII. Balance of power between our political parties would be controlled by Canada.- Forum. p. 643.
VIII. Canada has an increasing debt.- N. A. Review, vol. 133, p. 157.
IX. Canadian commerce is unimportant to the United States when compared to our trade with other countries.
X. A reciprocity treaty would give us all the advantages of a union without any of its burdens.
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