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English 6.

NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED

Debate for December 4, 1890.Question: Resolved that it is the duty of the patriotic citizen to observe party ties in municipal elections.

Brief for the affirmative:F. R. CLOW and WARREN PHINNEY.Best general references: H. H. Darling in Harvard Monthly, Mar. 1889, pp. 21-34; T. Roosevelt's Essay in Practical Politics, pp. 72, 73; Scribner's, Vol. 2, p. 485; Bryce's American Commonwealth, ch. Lxii-lxviii; Patten in Annals of Am. Acad. of Pol. Science, July 1890; Nation, Vol. 43. pp. 280 324. 362.

I. Experience shows that-a. If a party can be trusted with the government of the nation, it can be entrusted with the affairs of a city: Harvard Mo. Mar. 1889-b. Local independent movements have always been temporary and responsibility for misgovernment consequently lacking: Scrib. Mag. II 485.- c. Party supremacy in local affairs is necessary to supremacy in national affairs: Roosevelt, p. 72.

II. Consideration of usual objections.- a. Bossism. This can be secured not by revolt from the party but by active participation in part caucuses: Roosevelt, p. 73.- b. Corrupt Candidates. Absolute partisanship not advocated in every instance: Hary. Mo., Mar. 1889, p. 30.

III. The necessity of observing party lines in municipal elections exists for the following reason:- a. It is impossible to divide votes in one way for national elections and in another way for local elections: Patten in Annals, July, 1890.- b. It economizes party machinery: Bryce, 64, 65.- c. Local politics serve as a training school to develope party managers.

IV. In view of the foregoing, the patriotic citizen should observe party lines in municipal elections, because:- He can thereby best contribute to the purity and supremacy of his party.- b. Whoever bolts his party loses influence in it without gaining influence in any other.

Brief for the Negative:R. S. BARLOW and C. R. DETRICK.Best general references: Bryce's Am. Com. I. Chaps. L-LII, LXIII-LXVIII; Von Holst's Cons. Law, Sec. 102; Jamelson's Introduction to Const, Hist.; Labor, I, p. 460; Encyclopedia Brit. IV. 62, XVII. 462; Pol. Sc. Quar. II, 201-312; June '87, Forum II, 265, Nov. '86, 539, Feb. '87, 357. 472. Dec. '90: Ford's Am. Cit. Manual Part I, 66-83; F. J. Parker's Study of Munic. Gov. in Mass.; Publications Am. Econ. Asso. I. No. 2, 3, II. No. 6; Johns Hopkins U. Studies, IV, No. 4, 10, v, No. 1, 2, 3, 4, VII, 1, 3, 4; Publications of Am. Statis. So. New Series, Nos. 2, 3, 6; Nation LI, 337, Oct. 30, '90.

I. The purposes of municipal government cannot be carried out by State or national governments.- a. Protection of the citizens through: 1. Police; 2. Fire department; 3. Health dept., sewerage, etc.; 4. Street dept.- b. Improvement of citizens through: 1. Schools; 2. Libraries, museums, etc.; 3. Parks.- c. Carrying on great public works; 1. Water; 2. Water-front; 3. Gas; Bryce I, 589, 598, 610, II. 60.

II. Local government ought usually to engage the first interest of the citizens.- a. They more directly affect the individual. Ex. schools, fire dept., etc. b. Local taxes are greater than state and national.- c. Greater than state and nationa.- c. Greater influence of individual on local affairs.

III. The interference of State or nation degrades municipal politics by making possible: a. Rings, Bryce II, 338-353.- b. Deals Eg: Hill and Harrison.- c. Bribery with funds from other places; Bryce II, 52, 55-57, 63-64, 66.

IV. The connection between municipal and national or State politices degrades national politics.- a. By giving the national machines greater patronage, eg. N. Y., Phila., Bryce II, 62, 67.- b. By using corruptly the foreign vote, eg., N. Y., San Francisco.

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