Question: "Resolved, That General Booth's employment system, as outlined in 'Darkest England,' ought to be applied to New York City."
Brief for the Affirmative.W. B. MOULTON and R. C. RINGWALT.
Best general references: In Darkest England and the Way Out; Herbert Mills, Poverty and the State; F. G. Peabody in Forum XII, 751 (Feb. 1892) and XVII, 52 (Jan. 1894); Rev. of Rev. II, 492 (Nov. 1890); New Review VII, 493 (Oct. 1892); Nineteenth Cent. XXIX, 73 (Jan. 1891); West. Rev. Vol. 135, p. 429 (Apr. 1891); Quart. Jour. Econ. V, 1 (Oct. 1890).
I. The condition of New York urgently demands an extensive scheme for the relief of the unemployed: C. C. Closson in Quart. Jour. Econ. VIII, 175 (Jan. 1894).
II. This demand can best be met by applying the scheme of General Booth which is for a system of colonization consisting of - (1) Home shelters. - (2) Farm colonies. - (3) Emigration colonies: In Darkest England, Part II, Chap. 1, Sec. 2.
III. The scheme of General Booth is scientific. - (a) Rebuilds character. - (b) Takes away temptation. - (c) Protects the community by - (1) Isolating the unfit. - (d) Decreases vagrancy: Quart. Jour. Econ. V, 14. - (e) Reverses the tide from cities. - (f) Discriminates between the deserving and undeserving. - (g) Diminishes promiscuous charity.
IV. It is practical. - (a) It has been successful as far as applied in England: Forum XII, 762. - (b) Its principles have long been in use in Germany: Quart. Jour. Econ. V, 6-22. - (c) It is the cheapest method of caring for vagrants: Forum XVII, 75.
V. It is easily adaptable to New York. (a) The conditions of New York and London are similar. - (b) The plan has already had some application there. - (1) Home shelters have been established. - (2) An industrial farm was operated 1874-1888 at Plainfield, N. J.: Forum, XVII, 58.- (3) The principle of deportation has had the best results in the work of the Children's Aid Society.
Brief for the Negative.E. S. PAGE and WM. M. TROTTER.
Best general references: Wm. Booth, Darkest England; Church Quar. Review, XXXII, 223-247; Contemporary Review, LX, 253-261 (Aug. 1891); LXII, 59 (July, 1892); Forum, XV, 753-766 (Aug. 1893); J. A. Riis, How Other Half Lives; Quar. Jour. Econ. VI, 63-65 (July 1892).
I. The whole scheme is adapted to but a small portion of the needy, viz: the homeless. - (a) Applicable to unencumbered individuals and not to families: Contemp. Rev. Vol. 67, p. 64 (July 1892). - (b) Class of homeless unemployed not large for so great a scheme: Riis, How Other Half Lives, 89; Contemp. Rev. Vol. 62, p. 64; Forum XV, 760.
II. The scheme is objectionable even for the homeless. - (a) The City Colony is objectionable. - (1) "Shelters" encourage vagrancy and dissolution of family ties by wife - desertion: Contemp - Rev. 62, p. 65-66, 70; Riis, p. 82. - (2) "Elevators" attract but few of them. - (x) Laziness: Forum 16, p. 754-5; Contemp. Rev. 60, p. 253.- (3) Occupants become willingly dependent on charity: Contemp. Rev. 62, p. 75-76. - (4) Labor bureaus of but slight advantage. - (x) Employers distrust applicants. - (y) Salvation sympathizers discriminate against other workmen: Contemp. Rev. 62 p. 71-2. - (5) "Salvage Brigade" no field for work in New York: Riis, p. 50. - (b) The Farm Colony is objectionable. - (1) But few patronize farm for any length of time or (w) Few to come from "Elevators." - (x)Dislike farm work. - (y) Lack of city allurements: Forum 12, p. 757-8; Riis, p. 133-4, 175. - (z) Stigma of being one of "unfit" and known object of charity. - (2) Objectionable for colonists. - (x)Willing dependent on charity: Contemp. Rev. 62 p. 76. - (y) "Colony bummers;" Forum 12 p. 758: Quar. J. Econ. VI, p. 464. - (z) As a class discriminated against by outside employers on leaving. - (3) Lower wages in neighborhood of colony. - (4) Industrial village will be unsuccessful. - (x) Dependent on uncollectable city refuse. - (5) Cooperative farms always have failed. - (x) Brook farm experiment, etc. - (c) The Oversea or Out-west Colony is objectionable. - (1) Difficult to procure suitable land. - (2) Few "farm" graduates wishing to go to the borders of civilization. - (3) Success of those who go is dubious. - (d) Farm colonies exceedingly hard to manage. - (e) Salvation Army officers have not unusual executive ability of this sort and have too little knowledge of social problems to manage well a large social scheme: Contemp: Rev. 62, p. 59.