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Brief for the Negative.L. T. HILDRETH and E. M. GROSSMAN.

Best general references: R. N. Cust, Notes on Missionary Subjects; Canon Taylor, The Great Missionary Failure, Fortnightly Review, Vol. L (October, 1888); Canon Taylor, Missionary Finance, Fortnightly Review, Vol. L (Nov. 1888); A. H. Atteridge, A Protestant Criticism of Protestant Missions, Dublin Review, 1889, Volume CIV, p. 121; Economic Defects in Christian Missions, Scribner's Monthly, Vol. XX; Missions-New Style, Nation, Vol. LXI, p. 235; Missionary Temptations, Nation, Vol. LXI, p. 360.

I. The number of conversions is a disproportionate result of the money and efforts expended on foreign missions.- (a) Many millions are contributed every year, all over the civilized world, whereas the number of converts is small.- (b) The number of converts yearly is counterbalanced one hundred and eighty-three times by the annual excess among non-christians of births over deaths: Canon Taylor, The Great Missionary Failure, Fortnightly Review, Vol. L (October, 1888).- (c) Most conversions are but temporary-(x) Either they lapse upon departure of the missionary to some other station-(y) Or they help to swell the reports of some more lavish missionary society,- (d) The loss of Christian lives is not repaid by the doubtful gain of heathen souls.- (x) The wives and children of the missionaries rarely survive the deadly climates, plagues and famines.

II. The missionary societies are not conducted in a business-like manner.- (a) Their accounts are vague and unsatisfactory.- (b) The great number of clerks and secretaries are costly and dispensable: Canon Taylor, Missionary Finance, Fortnightly Review, Vol. L (Nov., 1888).


III. The methods employed are illadapted to the undertaking to convert people to Christianity.- (a) Missionaries provoke opposition and hatred rather than confidence.- (x) Missionaries do not conform to the customs of the natives.- (y) They are lavish in their mode of living.- (b) To the Mohammedans and Budhists, and even to the ignorant heathen, the Christianity of the missionaries is not very attractive.- (x) The missionaries present the Christianity infected with the bitter internal animosities of numerous opposing sects.- (y) Missionaries constantly squabble among themselves, either for more preferment from home, or for more influence among the natives.- (z) The natives are confronted with the undignified rivalry of two or three hundred societies-all pulling for converts.

IV. Missionaries involve their governments in foreign wars.- (a) They incite natives to rebellion.- (b) They urge their governments to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign nations.- (c) They seek the support of their own governments when they get into difficulty for interfering in the affairs of state: Missions-New Style, Nation, Vol. LXI, p. 235.

V. All the benefits brought about by foreign missions today are acquired by commerce.- (a) The commercial activity is so great that it extends to all parts of the world.- (b) The natives soon imitate the conduct of traders who come among them and-(c) Traders do all they can to bring education in some form to them in order that they may learn to trade fairly and to the best advantage of all concerned.- (d) The hunt for new fields for investment and for colonization carries with it Christianity and civilization which the surrounding natives will eventually, of their own accord, and consequently more effectively, adopt.