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Feel There Is "Distinct Limitation Upon the Competence of Political Government in an Industrial Society"

By Matthew WOLL Vice-president

American Federation of Labor

The political policy of the American Federation of Labor is the outgrowth of many years of experience and the result of long study and observation of conditions, methods and theories in the United States and other countries.

It is admittedly not satisfactory to those cloistered persons who rejoice in the doctrinaire and who find satisfaction chiefly in the formulation of theoretical propositions. As to them let it be said at the outset that American labor's political policy was designed to satisfy the requirements of the great mass of wage earners of our country and that it is the outgrowth of their experience, study and observation. Any person who comes forward with a proposal that differs from their conclusions will have to prove to them that their conclusions are mistaken.

It has been said by critics of the American Federation of Labor that it holds aloof from politics and that this is a serious mistake. Those who have taken occasion to observe the facts understand the truth, which is that American labor is decidedly active in politics, that it has been a tremendous force in American political life but that it refrains from forming partisan political affiliations.

Labor Has Definite Philosophy

The American labor movement has a very definite philosophy which affects all of its activities and which is, I believe, primarily responsible for its great strength, its continuing solidarity and its tremendous moral influence in the life and affairs of the republic.

The philosophy of the American labor movement is in sharp contrast to the philosophy of most of the European labor movements and it is on this point that American labor is subjected to most criticism in what Mr. W. J. Ghent in a recent book so well terms "the coteries of the metropolitan areas".

It is fundamental with American labor that the state shall be required to do nothing which the individual can do for himself either by his own efforts or by acting in concert with his fellows. American wage earners look upon themselves as citizens of the republic, standing on an absolute equality with all other citizens in respect to every attribute of citizenship. They have no desire to be regarded as a class set apart to be shielded by the protection of special political agencies and they refuse to permit discrimination against themselves on account of their status in the economic or social structure.

Wage Earners Not Wards of State

American wage earners are in no sense wards of the state nor will they permit themselves to be so regarded. Neither do they have, on the other hand, any desire that any other portion of the citizenship of the country be regarded as wards of the state.

It is necessary to set forth some of these simple truths in order that there may be an understanding of the basis from the University of Kansas in 1921, and to Arthur H. Starbird '23, of Somerville; Bayard Cutting Fellowship to Charles H. Taylor 2G., of Maplewood, N. J., Austin Teaching Fellow at Harvard, whose subject is government and history: Pratt Fellowship in fine arts to Joseph S. Jabionski '23, and 1G., of Rochester, N. Y., and Rogers Fellowships to Harold A. Larrabee 2G., of Melrose, assistant in philosophy at the University, and to Norman L. Torrey 4G., of Jaffrey, N. H., instructor in French at the University.

Also Parker Fellowships for travel and study to Erik Achorn 4G., of Jamaica Plain, who will hold his fellowship for the second year to study history; Marvin Farber 1G., of Buffalo, N. Y., now the holder of a Sheldon Fellowship for the study of philosophy; Carl A. Garabedian 4G., of Cambridge, whose subject is mathematics; and Garrett Mattingly '23, of Allegan, Mich., who holds this year a Sheldon Prize Fellowship for the study of history.

John Harvard Fellowships Awarded

Also John Harvard Fellowships, without stipend, to James A. Maxwell 2G., of Westville, Nova Scotia, who will study economics; and Leonard Opdycke '17, of New York, tutor in fine arts at the University, who will hold his fellowship for the first half year. Also the Charles Eliot--Norton Fellowship, for study at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, to Prentice van W. Duell, of Buenos Aires, Argentina, who graduated from the University of California in 1916 and is now a first-year student at the Harvard School of Architecture.

The rest of the Graduate School fellowships and scholarships are awarded for resident study at the University next year. The list follows:

Philip H. Sears Scholarship to Francis R. Iredell 2G., of Long Beach, Cal. (philosophy).

Du Pont Fellowship to Lawrence P. Hall 3G., of Montclair, N. J., instructor in chemistry at Harvard (chemistry).

Robert Treat Paine Fellowship to Norman E. Himes '24, of Portland, Conn. (social ethics).

William Watson Goodwin Fellowship to Warren E. Blake 3G., of Newton (classics).

John Tyndall Scholarship to Stuart Ballantine of Glenside, Pa. (physics).

Henry Lee Memorial Fellowship to Edward H. Chamberlain 1G., of Iowa City, Ia. (economics).

Henry Bromfield Rogers Memorial Fellowship to Reuel L. Olson, graduate law student, of Los Angeles (social ethics and psychology).

James Walker Fellowship to Wilbur S. Hulin 1G., of Eugene, Ore. (psychology).

Ozias Goodwin Memorial Fellowship to Harold C. Havighurst 2G., of Charlestown, W. Va. (government).

Harris Fellowship to Frank T. Gucker 2G., of Philadelphia (chemistry).

Award Four Austin Fellowships

Edward Austin Fellowships to John A. Bentley 2G., of Halifax, Nova Scotia (English); Paul H. Buck 1G., of Columbus, Ohio (history); Ben B. Corson 3G., of Bridgton, Maine (chemistry); and Hans C. Duus 3G., of Tyler, Minn. (chemistry).

Christopher M. Weld Scholarship to Seaver R. Gilcreast 2G., of Methuen (Romance languages).

Willard Scholarship to Robert E. Rockwood of Worcester, assistant professor of Romance languages at Ohio State University.

Francis Parkman Fellowship to Chester H. Kirby of Iowa City, Iowa (history).

Thayer Fellowships to Howard K. Beale 2G., of Chicago (history); Arthur S. Campbell of Upland, Calif. (zoology); Harold Golder of Cannon Falls, Minn. (English); Walter B. Smith of Cardington, Ohio, instructor in Economics, University of Minnesota (economics); and Joseph L. Zimmerman 4G., of San Francisco (philosophy).

John Harvard Fellowships to Louis F. Fieser 3G., of Cambridge (chemistry); Merrill T. B. Spalding 3G., of Brookline (History); and Jeffries Wyman Jr. '23, of Cambridge (zoology).

Leverett Saltonstall Scholarship to Frank W. Fetter of Princeton, N. J. (economics).

Medoff Wins Scholarship in Classics

Charles Haven Goodwin Scholarship to Leon Medoff '23, of Philadelphia (classics).

George H. Emerson Scholarships to William C. Cooper Jr. 2G., of Watertown (chemistry); Roy W. Goranson 1G., of New Westminster, B. C. (geology); and George G. Tunell Jr. 1G., of Chicago (geology).

Shattuck Scholarships to Robert A. Aubin 1G., of Newton (English); Alexander J. Cook 3G., of Edmonton, Alta. (mathematics); Russel M. Geer 3G., of West Hartford, Conn. (classics); Bernard O. Koopman 1G., of Cambridge (mathematics); Warner G. Rice 1G., of Aurora, III. (English); Roland M. Smith 1G., of Brooklyn, N. Y. (English); and David V. Widder 2G., of Harrisburg, Pa. (mathematics).

Thayer Scholarships to Frederic R. Butler 1G., of Worcester (chemistry); Harold H. Chen 1G., of Tsingyanghsien, China (geology); Haskell B. Curry 1G., of Boston (physics); Bernard F. Haley of St. John, N. B. (economics); and Samuel Rezneck of Chelsea (history).

James Savage Scholarship to Ralph C. Epstein of Evanston, III. (economics).

Whiting Fellowships to David Bourgin 1G., of New York (physics); William J. Cahill 2G., of Hartford, Conn. (physics); and Ralph A. Loring 1G., of Hingham (physics).

Townsend Scholarships to Louis M. Hacker of Brooklyn, N. Y. (history); Leland R. Smith 1G., of Willoughby, Ohio (English); Arthur C. Sprague 2G., of York Village, Maine (English), Charles W. Ufford of New York City (mathematics); and Mark W. Wells 1G., of Roxbury (chemistry).

George and Martha Derby Scholarship to Thomas D. Cairns '23, of Chelsea (philosophy).

Austin Scholarships to Lester M. Beattle of Northfield, Minn. (English); Howard F. Bigelow of Kalamazoo, Mich. (economics); Arthur R. Davis of Middlebury, Vt. (chemistry); Jose M. Hernandez of Norman, Okia, (Romance languages); Arthur R. Knipp 1G., of Baltimore (physics); Robert R. La Follette of Terra Haute, Ind. (history); William T. MacCreadie of Northfield, Vt. (mathematics); Charles M. McCurry of Georgetown, Ky. (English); Howard B. Poole of Boulder, Colo (Romance languages); and Ernest E. Stanford of Cleveland, Ohio (botany).

George W. Dillaway Fellowship to Paul R. Harmel '23, of Cleveland (history).

Gorham Thomas Scholarship to Henry Federighi of New Brunskick, N. J. (zoology).

Many Win University Scholarships

University Scholarships to William J. Calvert Jr., of Portsmouth, Va. (English); Charles W. Edwards of Enterprise, Ala. (history); Lewis R. Frazier 1G., of Pocatello, Idaho (psychology); Julian L. Holley 2G., of Bristol, Conn. (mathematics); Harold O. Holte 1G., of Crookston, Minn, (physics); Leslie W. Jones 1G., of Schenectady, N. Y. (classics); Robert E. Lutz 2G., of Sanford, Maine (chemistry); Ralph E. Marshall of Wolfeville, N. S. (history); Raoul M. May 1G., of San Francisco (zoology); George W. Morris of Cincinnati, Ohio (geology); Charles M. S. Niver 1G., of Baltimore (fine arts); Kosaburo Shimizu 1G., of Vaucouver, B. C. (social ethics); Abraham G. Silverman of Stanford University, Calif. (economics); Daniel P. Varnum 1G., of Strathroy, Ont. (philosophy); and Irving H. White 1G., of Richmond, Va. (English).

Also University Scholarships to Charles B. P. Aiken of New Orleans, La. (physics); Walter R. Batsell of Columbia, Mo., (history and government); Armand T. Beauregard Jr., of Darien, Conn. (economics); Lawrence R. Blinks of Kalamazoo, Mich. (botany); George R. Burns of Helena, Mont. (English); Edwin R. Clapp of Stanford University, Calif. (English); Harry H. Clark of Waterbury, Conn. (English); Edward E. Euler of Mt. Vernon, N. Y. (German); Roger C. Hackett of Bloomington, Ind. (history); George E. Harris of Greenville, N. C. (English); Huntington Hill of Huntington, N. Y. (history); Luther W. Hussey of Northbridge Centre (mathematics); Henry H. Jacobs of Carnarvon Iowa (chemistry); Clyde E. Kesler of Granville, Ohio (Zoology); John L. La Monte of Columbus, Ohio (history); Richard D. Leonard of Newtonville (history); Bernard Lewis of New York City (chemistry); Rising Morrow of Middletown, Conn. (history); Harold D. Parceil of Tampa, Fia, (Romance languages); Julian L., Ross of Meadville, Pa. (psychology); Wayland. F. Vaughan of Newton Centre (philosophy); Steward H. Webster of Los Angeles (chemistry); Donald C. Williams of Long Beach, Calif. (philosophy); Abraham P. Woolfson of Toronto, Ont. (economics); Fred R. Chambers of Princeton, Ind. (history); Eiden Le C. Colby of Oakland, Calif. (government); and Milton V. Smith of Claremont, Calif. (government).

Medical School Awards Nine

Nine men have been awarded John Harvard Fellowships in the Medical School on the basis of outstanding scholarship in their work up to this year. The winners include the four leading scholars of the fourth-year class, William L. McClure of Lawton, Okia., Walter S. McClelian of Hamilton, N. Y., Wyman Richardson of Boston, and Harold van der E. Williams of Reading; the four leading scholars of the third-year class, Fred W. Stewart of Ithaca, N. Y., McKeen Cattell of Garrison-on-Hudson, N. Y., Paul A. Chandler of Hastings, Neb., and G. C. Prather of Anderson, Ind.; and the leading scholar of the second-year class, Edward L. Pierson Jr., of Salem.

The John White Browne Scholarship in the Medical School has been awarded for next year to Dr. William G. Walker of Ricevilie, Iowa; and William O. Moseley Traveling Fellowships in the Medical School to Dr. D. J. MacPherson of Boston, assistant in neuropathology, and Dr. Francis G. Newton of Boston, assistant in surgery

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