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English 6.

NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED

DEBATE OF FEBRUARY 27, 1889.Question: "Resolved, Should railroads be owned and managed by the State?"

Brief for the Affirmative.W. R. Bigelow and J. P. Nields.

Best general reference: Harper's Monthly, vol. 73, pp. 450, 457, and 571-578. Fortnightly Review, vol. 20, p. 557.

I. The constitutional right rests upon the expediency of government ownership.- Constitution, art. 1, sec 8; Hamilton's Work, vol. 4, pp. 109-111.

II. The advantages of state ownership are: (1) A comprehensive and harmonious system of railways throughout the country.- Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for 1888, p. 239. (2) Better railway service, better time, better accommodations, fewer accidents.- Harper's, vol. 73, p. 451. (3). Low and regular rates.- Fortnightly Review, vol. 46, p. 683; ibid. vol. 20. p. 562.

III. State ownership would do away with the existing evits. (1) The combinations of private corporations.- North American Review, vol. 112, (Jan.) p. 6. (2) The waste of national resources (a) in unnecessary competition.- Hadley, Railroad Transportation, pp. 82-100; (a) in land grants.- North American Review, vol. 136, pp. 257-260. (3) Discriminations. Hudson, The Railways and the Republic, pp. 25-105, 155-187. (4) Gambling in railroad stocks.- Hadley, pp. 40-62. (5) Control of political action.- Hudson, pp. 450-479.

IV. Railroads are now falling into the hands of a great monopoly.- Senate Report for 1886, pp. 54-57.

V. All partial measures of government regulation are bound to fail.- Hadley, p. 173.

VII. State ownership is a necessity.

Brief for the Negative.E. L. Jellinek and C. D. Wetmore.

Best general references: Jevons "The Railways and the State," in "Methods of Social Reform," pp. 353-383; article on "Transportation" in Lalor's Cyclopedia, III, 928.

I. Government intervention should not be applied to transportation.- Lalor, II, 380-385.

II. Railroads do not fulfil the conditions of successful management.- Jevons.

III. Government management would demoralize our civil service and politics and would be dangerous to our institutions.- Hadley, chap. 13.

IV. Government ownership of railroads implies other things. Government management is not economical and would be injurious to industrial and commercial interests.

V. State and municipal government would lose seriously, as well as individuals.

VI. State management would increase rates and would involve pecuniary loss to the government.- Hadley; N. A. Review, vol. 139, p. 51.

VII. State management has failed under more favorable conditions than would exist in the United States, i. e., in France and in Italy.- Hadley, ch. X and xiii; The Nation, vol. 35, 150.

VIII. State management has proved less satisfactory than co-operate service-(a) in transportation charges (b) in conveniences of travel; (c) in adopting improved methods and equipment.- Nation, v. 43, p. 6; Jean's Railway Problems, especially chapters 30 and 31.

IX. All of the advantages and none of the disadvantages of state management would be secured by state control and by consolidation.- C. F. Adams in the Atlantic Monthly, vol. 37, p. 360, 691, vol. 38, p. 72; N. A. Rev. vol. 139, p. 51: Hadley, c. XII.

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