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Debate of November 21, 1895.Question: "Resolved, That immigration into the United States ought to be further restricted by law."

Brief for the Affirmative.T. S. WILLIAMS and C. R. WILSON.

Best general references: Publications of the Immigration Restriction League; R. M. Smith, Emigration and Immigration; for acts of Congress relating to immigration, see, U. S. Statutes at Large, XXIII. 332, XXVI. 1084, XXVII. 569, XXXVIII. 391; F. A. Walker, Immigration in Yale Review, I. P. 125 et. seq. (Aug. 1892).

I. A very large immigration is no longer necessary and desirable.- (a) Public lands are being rapidly taken up: Yale Review, I, 129, 130 (Aug. 1892).- (b) Unskilled labor no longer so requisite.- (1) Country is fairly well opened up: Smith, Emigration and Immigration, 119.- (2) Machinery supplants hand labor in great part: Smith, Em. and Im., 119.- (c) Natural increase of population is sufficient: H. C. Lodge, Restriction of Immigration, in No. Am. Rev., vol. 152, p. 34 (Jan. 1891).

II. Immigration has inflicted specific evils on the country.- (a) Political.- (1) Abnormal proportion of adult males gives too great voting power: Smith, Em. and Im. 79, 80.- (2) Bossism fostered: J. Strong, Our Country, p. 59.- (3) Venal voting: S. G. Fisher, Alien Degradation of American Character, in Forum, XIV. 611 (Jan. 1893).- (4) Socialistic dangers: J. Strong, Our Country, 143.- (5) Municipal problem made more difficult: J. Jtrong, Our Country, 58.- (b) Economic.- (1) Problem of the unemployed in dull times increased: Publications of the Immigration Restriction League, No. 4, SS 10, 11, and No. 8.- (2) Lowering of wages: Smith, Em. and Im. p. 140.- (3) Lowering the standard of living: Yale Review, I. 135 (Aug. 1892).- (4) Labor troubles increased: F. A. Walker in American Economic Association Papers, III, 170-172.- (c) Social.- (1) Excessive proportion of paupers are foreign born.- (2) Of insane and diseased persons.- (3) Of criminals: H. C. Lodge, The Census and Immigration, in Century, XLVI. 737-739 (Sept. 1893).- (4) Colonies in cities and country are formed by immigrants: J. Strong, Our Country. pp. 59, 60; Yale Review, I, 134 (Aug. 1892).- (5) Corruption of American morals: Henry Rood, Mine Laborers in Pennsylvania, in Forum, XIV. 110-122 (Sept. 1892); J. A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives.

III. The character of immigration is deteriorating.- (a) Less moral and intellectual force is required of immigrants now than formerly: Yale Review, I. 131, 132 (Aug. 1892).- (b) Much larger proportion comes from the undesirable nations of southern and Eastern Europe than formerly: Publications Im. Res. League, Nos. 2, 5.

IV. There are practicable restrictions-.(a) Increase of head-tax.- (1) Would tend to make cost of emigration to the United States equal that to South America and Australia. Publications Im. Res. League, No. 1. p.p. 11, 12.- (2) Would roughly indicate habits of thrift.- (b) Educational test (ability to read and write any language).- (1) Would exclude few of the desirable and many of the undesirable Publications Im. Res. League, No. 1, p. 13, Nos. 5, 8.- (2) Is in accordance with American principles. Publication. Im. Res. League No 1, p. 13.

V. The present time is especially appropriate for restriction.- (a) Immigration will assume its old proportions with the return of prosperity. Publications. Im. Res. League, No. 4, S 17.- (b) It will then be more difficult to enforce restrictive laws.

Brief for the Negative.H. E. ADDISON and H. L. BELISLE.

Best general references: Edward Atkinson in Forum, XIII, 360-70 (May, 1892); Kapp on Immigration, 142-53; North American Review, Vol. 134, pp. 346-67 (April 1882)); Vol, 156, pp. 220 et seq. (Feb. 1893), by Senator Hansborough; Public Opinion, XIV, 296-98 (Dec. 31, 1892); Lalor's Cyclopedia, II, 85-94.

I. The results of immigration in the past have been most satisfactory: Forum, XIII, 367; Lalor's Cyclopedia, II, 85-94.- (a) To immigration is largely due the present developed state of the country: Kapp on Immigration, 151; No. Am. Rev., Vol. 134, pp. 362-63.- (b) Without immigration such development could not have taken place until a full century later.- (1) Owing to the smallness of the population: No. Am. Rev., Vol. 134, pp. 362-63.- (c) The youthfulness of the immigrants has caused them to be rapidly assimilated: No. Am. Rev., Vol. 134, pp. 360-61.- (d) Immigrants were loyal to the Federal Government in the Civil War.- (1) in the army.- (2) in civil life.- (e) The interaction and blending of various national characteristics tend to the highest race development.- (1) As shown in the high average of intelligence in this country; Herbert Spencer in No. Am. Rev., Vol. 148, p. 772 (June 1889)-(2) And in the development of the fine arts.

II. The continuation of immigration is desirable. Cong. Record, XVI, 1788-89 (Feb. 17, 1885); Forum, XIII, 360-70.- (a) Unskilled laborers on public and semi-public works, in heavy manufacturing works, etc., release intelligent American labor for higher pursuits; Forum, XIII, 363.- (b) Intelligent farmers for the development of our agricultural resources in the south and west; ibid.- (c) Domestic servants.- (d) The educated and thrifty constitute a large part of the immigrants: No. Am. Rev., vol. 134, pp. 346-67.- (e) Immigration will not injure American labor,- (1) Wages have steadily increased in the last twenty years: Atkinson, in Forum, XIII, 364-67; Westminster Rev. vol. 130, pp. 481-87.

III. The objectionable features of immigration are obviated by the present laws: Pub. Opin., XIV., 568 (March 18, 1893); No. Am. Rev., vol. 156, 223 et seq. (Feb., 1893).- (a) Contract laborers.- (b) Criminals.- (c) Paupers. (d) The physically and mentally diseased.- (e) All other objectionable classes: U. S. Statutes at Large, XXVI, 1084: XXVII, 569; XXVIII, 391.

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