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Debate for May 28, I8gI.Question: Resolved, That immigration should be further restricted by law.
Brief for the affirmative.R. S. BARLOW and G. S. GOLDTHWAITE.
Best general references: N. Y. Tribune, May 17, '91; Cong. Record, 52d Congress, 2d Sess., Feb. 20, '90, p. 3326; Pol. Science Quarterly, IV, 480; E. Schuyler on Italian Immigration; J. A Riis, How the Other Half Lives; R. M. Smith, Immigration and Emigration.
I. There is no longer any necessity for Immigration: N. Y. Tribune, May 17, '91; H. C. Lodge; Cong. Rec. 52d Cong, 2d Sess., p. 3326.
II. Immigration has led to many bad effects. 1. Political;- (a) large proportion of adults gives too great voting power; Smith, Im. and Em. 79;- (b) our degraded municipal administration due to it: Smith Im. and Em., '87. 2. Economic.- (a) Immigrants offset what they produce by remittances home; Smith, Im. and Em., 99:- (b) nearly half of the immigrants are without occupation, and this ratio is still increasing; Lodge's speech, Cong. Rec., Feb. '90. p. 3326;- (c) there is already a large unemployed class of native laborers: Smith, Im. and Em., 127;- (d) displacement of American Labor; Smith, 127; Lodge, Cong. Rec., Feb. '90, 3326;- (e) by classes used to a lower standard of living; Smith, 181:- (f) introduction of the sweating system. Smith. 136; 2. Riis, How the Other Half Lives, 121-123. 3. Social effects;- (a) Our high rates of mortality, vice, crime, etc., are due to Immigration; Smith 150;- (b) Immigration the prevailing cause of illiteracy in the U. S.; Smith, 161.
III. Present laws are insufficient;- (a) diseased persons are allowed entrance: H. C. Lodge, Cong. Rec., Feb. '90, 3326;- (b) agents for S. S. lines induce men to immigrate; N. Y. Tribune, May 17, '91;- (c) pauper laws admit immigrants possessing less than the average wealth of residents; Smith, Im. and Em., 101.
Brief for the negative.J. M. MORTON and G. B. WOOMER.
Best general references: North American Review, Vol. 134, pp. 346-367; Journal of Social Science for 1870, No. 2.
I. The policy of the United States in regard to immigration has been successful and its continuance is necessary to develop the resources of the country: Friedrich Kopp, Immigration; Lalor's Cyclopaedia II, 85-94; Roscher's Political Economy 2, 46-55.
II. Immigration is an advantage to the country because of-(a) The prosperity brought by the immigrants-(b) The addition to the national power of production-(c) The money value of the immigrants as laborers: North American Review, Vol. 134, pp. 346-367; Senator Morgan's Speech, Cong. Rec. 41st Cong., 2d sess., vol. 16, pp. 1630-1635.
III. The interests of American labor do not suffer by immigration because-(a) Immigrants form "non competing groups"-(b) Are ultimately Americanized: Westminster Review, Vol. 130, pp. 474-487; J. L. Laughlin in International Review, Vol. 11, p. 88; Cairne's Political Economy, pp. 57-59.
IV. The present immigration laws are satisfactory.-(a) The worst class of immigrants is excluded.-(b) The interests of American labor are fully protected.(c) More stringent regulations, even if desirable, could not be enforced: North American Review, Vol. 152, pp. 27-37; Statutes at Large; XXIV, p. 414; Cong. Rec., 2d sess., Vol. 22, pp. 1326-1328; The Nation, XLV, p. 518.
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