USSR and China
Russia is the world's second greatest industrial power, while China, striving for greater industrial strength, is still predominantly agricultural, and not anywhere near as centralized as the Soviet Union. Both countries have always desired control over Outer Mongolia, Kores, and Japan. Russia, moreover, had its sights on China-held Manchuria. Ideological arguments before 1953 were rather serious also. China claimed that the basic philosophy of the country was Mao's interpretation of Marx and Lenin; Stalin was just the ruler of a friendly country. This of course clashed with Stalin's view of a uniform communism, determined by the Russian leader.
Finally, China unmistakeably felt that Russia was deliberately withholding economic aid from it. Many Chinese believed that Russia feared a strong China almost as much as it did a strong United States. In China, schools are compelled to teach Russian, while in Russia very few know Chinese. This irritated many patriotic Chinese.
Stalin Insists on Control
While Stalin lived, he persisted in subjecting all satellites to his control or to the control of Russia. Yugoslavia, loyal to Russia, but nevertheless more loyal to Tito, refused to bow under the yoke of the Soviet Union, and broke off relations. There is a slight possibility that if Stalin had lived, and China did not have to depend on Soviet aid in the Korean war, China might have broken away also.
Perhaps, the men in the Kremlin feared another Tito; perhaps, they wanted China as a very close ally. Whatever the reason, beginning with the ascension of Malenkov as Prime Minister, Russia made a number of concessions to the Chinese. Mao began to be treated with much more respect, and his ideological views were accepted as equal to those of Marx, Lenin, and Stalin.
The greatest grants of all were made in October of last year. In a declaration signed in Moscow, the two countries solidified "a solid front against Western aggression."