A female announcer says, WELCOME TO

TVOKIDS POWER HOUR OF LEARNING.

TODAY'S JUNIOR LESSON:

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Text reads ”TVOkids Power Hour of Learning.

Teacher Edition. Today's junior lesson:

Experimental and Theoretical Probability.

A woman with long black hair and black-framed glasses sits with her arms crossed on a table in front of her. She wears a floral print long-sleeved shirt and has a photo of the Toronto skyline on a wall behind her. On the table are two cardboard cubes marked with the pips of six-sided dice.

Text reads Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Teacher Vanessa say, HI STUDENTS, HOW ARE YOU?

MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA,

AND WELCOME TO ANOTHER EPISODE

OF TVOKIDS POWER HOUR

OF LEARNING.

WE'RE GOING TO SPEND THE NEXT SIXTY

MINUTES DIVING DEEP INTO

THE WORLD OF EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

WE'RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT

OF FUN, PLAY A LOT OF GAMES,

AND LEARN A LOT.

BUT BEFORE WE DO,

I THOUGHT WE COULD DO SOME

MINDFULNESS AND DEEP BREATHING EXERCISES

WITH THE HELP OF...

Vanessa picks up a cardboard die.

She continues, A PROBABILITY DEVICE

SUCH AS A DICE.

SO WHATEVER NUMBER I LAND ON

WHEN I ROLL

IS HOW MANY DEEP BELLY BREATHS

WE'RE GOING TO TAKE

TO CALM OUR MIND, AND SET OUR--

GET US READY FOR SOME MATH LEARNING.

ARE YOU READY?

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

She says, SIX. I THINK WE ALL NEED

SIX BREATHS,

THE MOST WE COULD GET. OKAY?

SO BREATHE IN THROUGH YOUR NOSE,

AND OUT THROUGH YOUR MOUTH.

THAT'S ONE.

Vanessa breathes deeply.

She says, GOOD JOB. FOUR.

LAST ONE.

AND I FEEL WE ALL NEED THOSE

BREATHS TO CENTRE US

AND GET US GROUNDED

AND READY TO LEARN MATH.

Vanessa holds up a piece of paper that reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO TALK

ABOUT THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

WHICH LOOKS AT THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

OR THE LIKELIHOOD

OF SOMETHING HAPPENING,

AN EVENT HAPPENING,

OVER THE TOTAL POSSIBLE OUTCOMES

THAT MIGHT HAPPEN.

SO FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU HAD

A COIN THAT YOU WANTED TO TOSS,

YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF GETTING A HEADS OR TAILS,

EQUALLY LIKELY, BECAUSE WE KNOW

THERE'S ONLY TWO

DIFFERENT OUTCOMES,

HEADS OR TAILS,

AND AS WELL, THERE'S ONLY ONE OR

TWO DIFFERENT OUTCOMES TO GET.

SO IF YOU HAVE--IF YOU ROLL HEADS,

YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO PROBABILITY,

OR ODDS, THAT YOU WOULD

GET THAT.

Vanessa holds a piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

She explains, IN TERMS OF EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY, IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY

REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT

WHERE YOU MIGHT GET

A DIFFERENT RESULT,

SO JUST BECAUSE OUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY SAYS YOU CAN HAVE

A ONE IN TWO CHANCE OF ROLLING,

UM, A DICE-- SORRY,

FLIPPING A COIN

AND GETTING A TAILS,

IF YOU'RE TO DO THAT TWO TIMES,

YOU HAVE, AGAIN,

A ONE OUT TWO CHANCE--

AND A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF GETTING A TAILS,

BUT MAYBE YOU GET TAILS

ON BOTH TRIES,

SO YOUR EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

MIGHT BE DIFFERENT

THAN YOUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY.

AND WE'RE ALSO GOING TO TALK

ABOUT SOMETHING KNOWN AS BIAS.

HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR TRIALS,

HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR ODDS,

AND WHAT CAN WE DO TO MAKE SURE

THAT THE GAMES WE ARE PLAYING

ARE FAIR?

SO FOR TODAY'S EPISODE

AND LESSON, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED SOME

MARKERS, SOME PAPER, ANY WRITING

UTENSIL IS FINE.

UM, IF YOU HAVE SOME DICE LAYING

AROUND, IF YOU HAVE A COIN,

IF YOU HAVE A SPINNER FROM--

MAYBE ONE OF YOUR BOARD GAMES

THAT YOU COULD USE, IT WOULD

COME IN HANDY TODAY.

AND WE'RE GOING TO LOOK AT

TALLYING,

WE'RE GOING TO LEARN KEEPING

DETAILED NOTES

OF OUR EXPERIMENT

AND HOW THAT CAN EFFECT,

UM, HOW WE CAN READ THOSE

OUTCOMES AS WE PLAY OUR GAMES.

BUT BEFORE WE BEGIN, I'M GOING

TO ASK THAT YOU WATCH A VIDEO

FROM TEACHER-- TEACHER SARAH,

AND SHE'S GOING TO TEACH US

JUST THE IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING

THE DIFFERENCE

BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

SO WATCH THE VIDEO, TAKE A FEW

NOTES, AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE.

An animated sun rises.

A woman with bobbed brown hair wears a blue shirt. She stands beside a whiteboard. Text beneath Sarah reads “Teacher Sarah.”

The whiteboard reads “Probability: What are the chances? Probability refers to the likelihood of an event happening. There are two kinds of probability: Theoretical and Experimental. Theoretical Probability: In theory, the mathematical/statistical odds of an event occurring based on the number of favourable outcomes and total number of outcomes. Experimental Probability: A measure of the likelihood of an event, based on DATA collected/ obtained from an experiment.”

Sarah says, HI TVOKIDS, I'M TEACHER SARAH,

AND TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT SOMETHING

REALLY COOL AND EXCITING

CALLED "PROBABILITY."

PROBABILITY REFERS TO THE

LIKELIHOOD OF AN EVENT

HAPPENING OR OCCURRING.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF

PROBABILITY.

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY HAS TO

DO WITH THE THEORY,

SO IN THEORY, THE MATHEMATICAL

OR STATISTICAL ODDS

OF AN EVENT OCCURRING BASED

ON THE NUMBER

OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES, AND THE

TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.

NOW EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,

THAT HAS TO DO

WITH THE LIKELIHOOD

OF AN EVENT HAPPENING

BASED ON DATA COLLECTED

OR OBTAINED

FROM A SPECIFIC EXPERIMENT.

SO TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK

MORE CLOSELY

ABOUT THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

[Upbeat music plays]

Sarah hits a button and the screen of the whiteboard changes to read “Theoretical Probability: Playing Cards. In a regular deck of playing cards there are: four suits (hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades), Fifty-two cards (not including the jokers), twenty-six red cards, twenty-six black cards, thirteen cards per suit.”

Sarah says, THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

OF PLAYING CARDS.

NOW LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO TAKE

A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING CARDS.

IN A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING

CARDS, THERE ARE FOUR SUITS.

HEARTS, SPADES, CLUBS,

AND DIAMONDS.

OUT OF THOSE FOUR SUITS,

TWO ARE RED AND TWO ARE BLACK.

THERE ARE ALSO TIRTEEN CARDS PER SUIT.

SO SUPPOSE YOU WANTED TO KNOW,

"HMM, WHAT ARE THE ODDS

OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A HEART

"OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS?"

WELL, IN ORDER TO FIND THAT OUT,

YOU HAVE TO FIND

THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO WE NEED TO KNOW TWO THINGS.

THE FIRST THING WE HAVE TO KNOW

IS THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OR DESIRED OUTCOMES.

IN THIS CASE, WHAT WE WANT TO

KNOW IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW THE TOTAL

NUMBER OF OUTCOMES,

AND IN THIS CASE, IT'S FIFTY-TW0,

'CAUSE THERE ARE FIFTY-TWO CARDS

TO CHOOSE FROM.

Sarah hits a button and the whiteboard changes. It reads “In this case, the favourable outcome (or the one that we want) is hearts. We know that there are thirteen hearts in a regular deck of cards. Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Theoretical Probability (TP) equals Thirteen over Fifty-two. We also know the total number of outcomes. In this case, there are fifty-cards in total so our number of total outcomes is fifty-two.”

SO AS WE SAID,

THE FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,

THE ONE THAT WE WANT, OR THE ONE

WE'RE LOOKING FOR, IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO KNOW

THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS

IN A REGULAR DECK OF CARDS.

SO THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

IS THE NUMBER

OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

DIVIDED BY

THE TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.

NOW WE CAN JUST PLUG IN

OUR VALUES.

AS WE SAID, WE KNOW

THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS

OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS.

AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS...IN TOTAL.

SO TO FIND THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY, WE ALWAYS START

WITH OUR FORMULA.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard displays a screen for “TP equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Remember to reduce to simplest form!”

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

WE CAN USE TP FOR SHORT.

THEN WE WRITE OUT THE FORMULA

AND SUBSTITUTE IN OUR VALUES.

SO WE HAD THIRTEEN HEARTS, WHICH IS

OUR FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,

AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS IN TOTAL.

NOW WE HAVE TO REMEMBER, WE

ALWAYS WANT TO REDUCE FRACTIONS

TO SIMPLEST FORM.

SO WHAT THAT MEANS IS WE ARE

LOOKING FOR THE GREATEST

COMMON FACTOR THAT CAN GO INTO

BOTH THE NUMERATOR

AND THE DENOMINATOR.

AND IN THIS CASE, OUR SIMPLEST

FORM WOULD BE ONE QUARTER.

WE'RE ALMOST THERE.

SO YOU MIGHT BE ASKING YOURSELF,

HOW DO YOU EXPRESS PROBABILITY?

WELL, THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT

WAYS WE CAN DO THAT.

WE CAN EXPRESS PROBABILITY

AS A FRACTION.

ONE QUARTER.

AS A PERCENT, OR PER HUNDRED.

TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

OR AS A DECIMAL VALUE BETWEEN

ZERO AND ONE.

SO IN THIS CASE,

OUR DECIMAL WOULD BE TWENTY-FIVE

HUNDREDTHS, OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE.

ZERO REPRESENTS THE IMPOSSIBLE,

AND ONE REPRESENTS CERTAIN,

SO PROBABILITY IS MOST COMMONLY

EXPRESSED AS A VALUE

BETWEEN ZERO AND ONE, WHICH LETS

US KNOW HOW IMPOSSIBLE

OR HOW CERTAIN AN EVENT IS

OF OCCURRING.

SO YOU CAN TRY THESE ON YOUR OWN.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard reads “Try these! One, What is the probability of randomly selecting a CLUB from a regular deck of playing cards?

Two, What is the probability of randomly selecting a SPADE or a HEART from a regular deck of playing cards? What is the probability of randomly selecting a JACK from a regular deck of playing cards?

Sarah asks, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY

OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A CLUB

FROM A REGULAR DECK

OF PLAYING CARDS?

THINK ABOUT THE FAVOURABLE

OUTCOMES DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL NUMBER

OF OUTCOMES.

WHAT ABOUT THE PROBABILITY OF

A SPADE OR A HEART?

THIS ONE'S A LITTLE TRICKY,

'CAUSE YOU'D HAVE TO ADD

THE TWO TOGETHER.

AND LASTLY, WHAT MIGHT THE

PROBABILITY BE

OF CHOOSING A JACK IN A REGULAR

DECK OF PLAYING CARDS?

THERE YOU HAVE IT, TVOKIDS.

YOU ARE NOW PROBABILITY

PRO-STARS!

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa has a piece of paper propped up on a table in front of her. The paper reads “Flip a coin twenty times! Heads. Tails.”

Text beneath her reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.

I HOPE YOU ENJOYED THAT VIDEO

FROM TEACHER SARAH.

WE'RE GOING TO AGAIN LOOK AT

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO IF I ASKED YOU

TO FLIP A COIN TWENTY TIMES,

WHAT WOULD THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY BE

FOR LANDING ON HEADS,

OR LANDING ON TAILS AFTER

THOSE TWENTY FLIPS?

WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE

A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF FLIPPING A COIN AND LANDING

ON HEADS, OKAY?

TIMES TWENTY TIMES,

THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE.

WE KNOW THAT FRACTION.

NOW I CAN GO ACROSS.

I GET TWENTY OVER TWO,

OR TEN TIMES OUT OF TWENTY

THAT WE SHOULD LAND ON HEADS.

SAME THING FOR TAILS.

I HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO

PROBABILITY AGAIN,

BECAUSE TAILS IS ONE OPTION,

OR ONE OUTCOME,

WHEN THERE'S TWO THAT

ARE POSSIBLE, HEAD OR TAILS.

AGAIN, AFTER TWENTY FLIPS,

THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE,

I HAVE TWENTY OVER TWO

AS MY FRACTION,

IT'S THE SAME AS GETTING TAILS

TEN TIMES.

SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

STATES THAT IF YOU WERE TO FLIP

A COIN TWENTY TIMES,

YOU SHOULD GET HEADS TEN TIMES,

AS WELL AS TAILS TEN TIMES.

NOW IF WE ADD TEN AND TEN,

WE KNOW THAT EQUALS TWENTY

AND THAT WOULD BE AFTER THE

TOTAL AMOUNT OF FLIPS.

SO YOU HAVE

AN EQUALLY LIKELY CHANCE

OF GETTING HEADS AS YOU ARE

TO FLIPPING A COIN

AND LANDING ON TAILS.

Vanessa removes the paper and puts a new piece of paper on a board. It reads “Theoretical Probability. One, suit. Two, suits. Face cards.”

Vanessa asks, NOW WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITIES FOR THESE OUTCOMES?

IF YOU HAVE A DECK OF CARDS,

YOU KNOW THAT THERE ARE

FOUR SUITS IN THE DECK OF CARDS.

UM, HEARTS, DIAMONDS,

SPADES, AND CLUBS.

SO YOUR PROBABILITY,

YOUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

OF SHUFFLING AND PICKING UP

THE TOP CARD

OF GETTING ANY ONE OF THOSE

FOUR SUITS,

YOU HAVE A THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY OF ONE OUT OF FOUR.

AGAIN, THE FOUR SUITS

AND THE PROBABILITY

OF YOU PICKING ONE OF THEM

SO YOU HAVE ONE OUT OF FOUR,

OR A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENTCHANCE,

OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE, OR TWENTY-FIVE HUNDREDTHS,

ON THAT NUMBER LINE BETWEEN

ZERO AND ONE

CHANCE OF PICKING OUT A HEART.

OKAY, A HEART SUIT OF THE FOUR.

WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY-- WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY OF PICKING UP

A HEART OR A DIAMOND,

FOR EXAMPLE.

SO WE KNOW THAT THAT'S TWO

OF THE POSSIBLE FOUR SUITS.

WE HAVE HEARTS, DIAMONDS,

CLUBS, AND SPADES.

THOSE ARE THE FOUR

POSSIBILITIES.

AND WE SAID THAT WE--

WHAT ARE THE ODDS OF US PICKING

A HEART OR A DIAMOND?

SO TWO OUT OF THE FOUR,

OR ONE HALF,

OR FIFTY PERCENT CHANCE OF YOU PICKING

TWO DIFFERENT SUITS.

FINALLY, WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL

OF YOU PICKING OUT A FACE CARD?

NOW FACE CARDS ARE JACK,

KING, QUEEN, OKAY?

SO THREE OF THEM, AND WE HAVE

FOUR DIFFERENT SUITS.

SO YOU HAVE A PROBABILITY

OF TWELVE OUT OF FIFTY-TWO.

WHICH CAN BE REDUCED DOWN TO,

UH, THREE OVER THIRTEEN.

SO THOSE ARE YOUR ODDS

OF PICKING OUT A FACE CARD

ANYTIME YOU DRAW A CARD

FROM THE DECK. OKAY?

Vanessa shows her Theoretical Probability equation. “Number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She says, NOW THIS IS ALL GREAT WHEN WE

HAVE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

OKAY, BUT UNFORTUNATELY,

WE HAVE SOMETHING CALLED "BIAS."

UM, SO WHAT IS BIAS?

BIAS CAN AFFECT THE OUTCOMES

OF AN EXPERIMENT,

OF ANY TYPE OF GAME YOU PLAY,

MEANING THAT IT HAS BEEN ALMOST,

LIKE, RIGGED, OR CHANGED THE ODDS IN

SOMEBODY ELSE'S FAVOUR,

OR MAYBE IN YOUR FAVOUR

IN SOME CASES.

SO IF YOU HAD, UH--

SOMEONE SAYS "FLIP A COIN,"

AND THEY CHANGE IT TO BOTH SIDES

OF THE COIN BEING TAILS,

THERE WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY NO WAY

FOR YOU TO WIN

IF THEY SAID YOU COULD FLIP A

COIN AND LAND ON TAILS--

UM, WHEN BOTH SIDES ARE HEADS,

FOR EXAMPLE.

Vanessa holds up a spinner divided into blue, white, yellow and red quarters.

[Squeak]

Vanessa says, OKAY, IF YOU HAD A WHEEL,

AND THIS DIDN'T MOVE FROM THE

WHITE SECTION, FOR EXAMPLE,

IT ONLY STAYED HERE

WHEN YOU ROLLED,

OR WHEN YOU SPUN, SORRY,

AND YOU WIN BY LANDING ON ONE OF

THESE THREE SECTIONS,

OTHER SECTIONS, IT WOULD BE

IMPOSSIBLE FOR YOU TO WIN,

SO THAT WOULD NOT ALLOW THIS

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

TO EVER TAKE EFFECT, OKAY?

SO WHEN YOU GO TO, LIKE,

THE CARNIVAL,

OR YOU'RE GOING TO AN ARCADE,

YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT

THE GAMES THAT YOU'RE PLAYING

ARE FREE OF BIAS,

MEANING THAT THEY ARE FAIR,

AND THE PROBABILITY THAT

YOU CALCULATE

CAN ACTUALLY HAPPEN, OKAY?

SO THAT'S SOMETHING FOR YOU

TO LOOK OUT FOR.

SO NOW WE'RE GOING TO WATCH A

VIDEO FROM LOOK KOOL,

WHERE HAMZA IS GOING TO DISCUSS

THE PROBABILITY

OF DIFFERENT CARNIVAL GAMES

THAT YOU ARE GOING TO ABSOLUTELY

ENJOY WATCHING

AND LEARNING A LOT FROM.

SO CHECK IT OUT,

AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE

AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun shines in a blue sky.

Toast pops out of Kool Cat’s back. Burnt into the toast is “Hands-on.” Beneath that is are two small paw prints.

[Energetic music plays]

A male announcer says, HANDS ON!

A photo of a smiling man appears. The man has short brown hair. He wears a red vest over a plaid shirt and has a cream-coloured jacket over the vest.

Hamza says, JUSTIN STUDIES

BOTH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.

HE PLANS TO BE A DOCTOR

AND USE HIS SKILLS

TO HELP PEOPLE

ALL OVER THE WORLD!

Justin stands behind a red table with a whiteboard propped up on an easel to his right. To his left stand a boy with black hair and a girl with long brown hair.

Justin explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO BE

DOING AN EXPERIMENT

ABOUT PROBABILITY, AND THE WAY

THAT WE'RE GONNA DO THAT

IS BY LAUNCHING ANTACID ROCKETS.

AND EVERY TIME THEY LAUNCH,

YOU ARE GOING TO TELL ME

THE TIME,

AND I'M GOING TO PLOT IT ON

THIS GRAPH RIGHT HERE

THAT SAYS THE NUMBER OF ROCKETS

ON THE Y AXIS,

AND THE NUMBER OF SECONDS

IT TOOK TO LAUNCH ON THE X AXIS.

WE'RE GONNA PUT

OUR LAB GOGGLES ON.

YOU'VE GOT YOUR ANTACID TABLET,

YOU'RE GONNA POP IT IN THERE,

LET IN THE WATER,

THERE WE GO.

OH, IT'S FIZZING! IT'S FIZZING!

IT'S FIZZING!

SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!

OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

[Lid snaps]

Justin says, WHOA!

The girl says, FIVE SECONDS.

Justin says, FIVE SECONDS, OKAY.

SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!

BIG STEP BACK.

The boy and Justin say, WHOA.

[Pop]

The girl says, THAT WAS TEN SECONDS.

Justin says, OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

They say, WHOA!

[Laughing]

The girl says, TEN SECONDS AGAIN.

The boy asks, WHERE'D IT GO?

Justin says,

HERE WE GO.

The boy says, IT'S SURPRISING ME EVERY TIME.

They say, WHOA!

The girl says, ABOUT TWENTY SECONDS.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

The girl says, I THINK IT'S GOING TO BE A

LITTLE BIT LONGER.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Laughing]

Justin says, SO NOW THAT WE'RE DONE LAUNCHING

ALL OF OUR ROCKETS,

THIS GRAPH IS SHOWING THAT

AT TEN SECONDS,

THERE WERE A LOT OF ROCKETS THAT

LAUNCHED, RIGHT?

The boys says,

RIGHT.

Justin says, YEAH, 'CAUSE WE HAVE A

WHOLE BUNCH OF DOTS THERE.

WERE THERE A LOT THAT LAUNCHED

AFTER TEN SECONDS?

The girl says, NOT QUITE A LOT.

Justin traces a line over the highest dots over each number.

Justin says, WHAT THIS ACTUALLY INTRODUCES IS

THE IDEA OF A BELL CURVE.

AND WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS A BELL

IN THE END.

AND WHAT IT SHOWS US IS THAT

THINGS THAT ARE HIGHER

ON THE BELL ARE MORE PROBABLE.

The girl says, YEAH, YEAH.

A robotic female voice says,

TO BE MORE CERTAIN OF WHEN

SOMETHING IS PROBABLY

GOING TO HAPPEN, LIKE THE

AVERAGE TIME IT TAKES

TO POP POPCORN, IT IS BEST TO

DO MANY TESTS TO GET

AN ACCURATE BELL CURVE.

[Popcorn pops]

Justin says,

NOW I'VE GOT SOMETHING REALLY

COOL TO SHOW YOU.

HERE WE GO, BACK, BACK HERE.

Justin flips over multiple containers connected to board. He and the two children back up to a road.

The boy says, YEP, YEP, YEP.

Justin says, LET'S WATCH IT.

Rockets pop.

[Popping]

Justin says, WHOA! THERE'S ONE.

OKAY, TWO.

The boy says, OH, TWO! THREE.

Justin says, YEP.

The girl says, FOUR, FIVE...

Justin says, YEAH.

The children count, SIX...

YEP, SEVEN.

EIGHT, NINE.

Justin says, OH, YEP.

The girl counts, TEN, ELEVEN.

Justin exclaims, WHOA!

The boy says, THEY'RE ALL POPPING.

Justin says, HERE THEY GO. YEAH, YEAH. WOW!

Rockets pop and the lids land on the pavement.

[Popping, clattering]

Justin says, IT'S RAINING ROCKETS.

[Clattering]

Justin says, YOU GONNA KEEP GOING? YEP.

SO WE'VE BEEN WATCHING, RIGHT?

THERE WAS A FEW,

AND THEN A WHOLE BUNCH, AND NOW

THERE'S JUST A COUPLE.

[Popping]

Hamza says,

I SEE, USING MORE SAMPLES

CREATED A MORE ACCURATE

BELL CURVE.

NICE JOB, INVESTIGATORS!

WHAT DID YOU DISCOVER?

The boy says, WELL, I'M COOL WITH LAUNCHING

ONE THOUSAND OF THESE ROCKETS

'CAUSE I KNOW IT WILL JUST

MAKE MY BELL CURVE

EVEN MORE ACCURATE.

Justin nods.

The girl says, YEAH.

Hamza says, THANKS, INVESTIGATORS!

THANK YOU, JUSTIN!

The boy and girl wave and say, BYE!

[Honk, squealing brakes]

Kool Cat and a yellow cat zoom through a rope

Text reads “Challenge.”

The announcer says, CHALLENGE

[Cheering]

Hamza stand in a field in front of a row of blue and yellow flags. He and four children wear colourful curly wigs. A boy and a girl wear blue shirts while, on the other team, a boy and girl wear yellow shirts. A member of each team sits on a chair on a wooden platform. Over each chair, an empty balloon dangles on a pole. On the ground, resting on both platforms, is a meter with a needle on it, showing blue changing to purple changing to red.

Hamza says, WELCOME BACK TO THE

LOOK COOL

PROBABILITY CARNIVAL!

TEAM BLUE, TEAM YELLOW,

ARE YOU PUMPED?

The children yell, YEAH!

Hamza says, EXCELLENT, BECAUSE IN THIS PART

OF THE CHALLENGE,

WE'RE GOING TO SEE WHICH TEAM

CAN PUMP THE MOST AIR

INTO THE BALLOON WITHOUT

POPPING IT.

OF COURSE, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED

TO HAVE AN IDEA

OF HOW MANY PUMPS A BALLOON CAN

TAKE BEFORE IT POPS,

SO I'VE MADE A PROBABILITY SCALE

TO GUIDE YOU.

Flashback, Hamza pumps and looks at a balloon as it fills.

[Pumping]

Hamza narrates, I DISCOVERED IT WAS HIGHLY

UNLIKELY THAT ANY BALLOONS

WOULD POP BETWEEN ZERO AND NINE

PUMPS OF AIR.

BUT AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS,

IT BECAME LIKELY.

NOW ALL OF THEM BROKE,

BUT SOME DID.

A balloon pops and water spills out of it.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS, THE BALLOONS

WERE VERY LIKELY TO BURST.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AND MOST DID.

AND ONCE I GOT TO TWENTY-SEVEN PUMPS,

EVERY BALLOON POPPED.

IT WAS DEFINITE!

In the present, Hamza says, SO IT'S A GAME OF CHICKEN.

EACH TEAM GETS TO PUMP.

THE MORE AIR YOU PUMP,

THE MORE POINTS YOU WIN,

BUT BE CAREFUL!

BURST YOUR BALLOON AND YOU LOSE!

ALL RIGHT, TEAM BLUE!

SIX PUMPS, LET'S GO.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,

TWO, THREE,

FOUR, FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, TEAM YELLOW, SIX PUMPS.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,

ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR,

FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, THREE MORE PUMPS.

ONE, TWO, THREE.

ONE, TWO, THREE.

THAT BRINGS US UP TO NINE PUMPS.

ANYMORE THAN THIS,

AND WE LEAVE THE SAFE ZONE.

LET'S TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THIS

WITH MY MIND'S EYE GLASSES.

A robotic voice says,

WE CANNOT KNOW THE EXACT

OUTCOME OF THIS CHALLENGE

BECAUSE THE STRUCTURE

OF EACH BALLOON

MAY BE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT

AND CHALLENGERS

MIGHT PUMP SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT

AMOUNTS OF AIR

DEPENDING ON HOW HARD

THEY PUMP.

THAT'S WHY WE SAY SOMETHING

IS "LIKELY" OR "UNLIKELY."

Hamza says,

WE ARE NOW AT TWELVE.

IT'S BECOMING MORE AND MORE LIKELY.

NINETEEN, TWENTY.

TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO, TWENTY-THREE.

A child mutters, THAT WATER...

Hamza says, TWENTY-FOUR.

The balloon over the blue team member bursts and water drenches him.

[Pop]

[Cheering]

[Laughing]

A replay shows the water drenching the blue team member.

Hamza says, OH, WE HAVE A WINNER,

AND UNFORTUNATELY,

DONATO GETS SOAKED AGAIN!

TEAM YELLOW TAKES IT

WITH TWENTY-FOUR PUMPS!

Team yellow cheers, TEAM YELLOW!

Hamza says, CONGRATULATIONS!

[Upbeat music plays]

Hamza sits on a chair under an empty balloon, holding a bucket of popcorn. The teams stand beside two pumps.

Hamza says, WELL, THAT WAS NERVE-WRACKING.

CONGRATULATIONS TO BOTH TEAMS.

YOU GET TO KEEP YOUR CLOWN WIGS

TO REMIND YOU OF THE TIME

YOU LIVED ON THE EDGE.

Donato says, YEAH, WELL, WE'VE GOT A GIFT

FOR YOU, TOO.

[Pumping]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, NOT VERY LIKELY.

NOTHING IS GOING TO HAPPEN.

PUMP IT UP SOME MORE.

[Pop]

The balloon full of water bursts over Hamza.

[Splash]

[Laughing]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, THIS IS STILL PRETTY GOOD,

YOU GUYS WANT SOME?

WANT SOME POPCORN? NO, OKAY.

Kool Cat rolls his eyes.

[Grinding, blink]

Hamza says, AH! I THINK I'VE STILL GOT SOME

WATER IN MY EARS.

BUT AT LEAST I UNDERSTAND

PROBABILITY A LOT BETTER,

WHICH IS WHY I THINK

I CAN BEAT KOOL CAT

AT ONE MORE COIN FLIP.

An animated four-leaf clover jumps on a table beside Kool Cat.

The clover asks, ARE YA FEELING LUCKY, PUNK?

Hamza says, I'VE GOT SOMETHING BETTER

THAN LUCK, PUNK.

I'VE GOT MATH.

Hamza blows the clover off of the table.

[Blowing, clover yelps]

The clover lands on the floor.

The clover says, OOF, I'M STARTING TO FEEL A

LITTLE UNLUCKY.

A horseshoe falls on the clover.

[Thunk]

The clover groans, AW, MAN.

Hamza says, ALL RIGHT, KOOL CAT, WHAT DO YOU

SAY TO ONE MORE COIN FLIP?

LOSER HAS TO DO THE WINNER'S

CHORES FOR A WEEK. DEAL?

[Meow]

Kool Cat nods vigorously.

Hamza says, LET 'ER FLIP!

He flips a coin.

[Slide whistle]

Hamza says, TAILS!

HAH! IT'S TAILS! I'VE GOT YOU!

[Meow]

Hamza says, YOU WANT TO KNOW HOW I KNEW

IT WOULD BE TAILS

THIS TIME AROUND?

THE PROBABILITY OF IT

LANDING TAILS

SO MANY TIMES IN A ROW

WAS SO LOW THAT I FIGURED

KOOL CAT WAS PROBABLY PLAYING

A TRICK ON ME.

THAT COIN WAS TAILS ON BOTH

SIDES, WASN'T IT?

A quarter with moose heads on each side spins.

Hamza says, I MEAN, IT WAS

A PRETTY FUNNY TRICK.

BUT NOW YOU'VE GOTTA DO ALL MY

CHORES FOR A WEEK.

Kool Cat hangs his head down low.

Hamza says, SEE YOU NEXT TIME FOR MORE

LOOK COOL!

[Sad meowing]

Hamza says, NO, NO. I WASN'T KIDDING.

THOSE ARE THE RULES.

[Energetic music plays]

End credits roll.

The TVO Kids logo appears.

[Whee, giggling]

The apartment eleven productions logo appears.

[Blink]

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa gestures at the piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, HI AGAIN!

WE'RE GOING TO NOW TALK ABOUT

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

LIKE WE TALKED ABOUT AT THE

BEGINNING OF THE EPISODE.

SO WHAT IS IT?

IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY

REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT

AND OBSERVING OR WRITING DOWN

THE RESULTS.

SO HOW DO WE FRAME THAT IN TERMS

OF A FRACTION?

WE HAVE THE NUMBER OF EVENTS

THAT OCCUR,

OVER THE NUMBER OF TRIALS.

SO LET'S SHOW WHAT

I MEAN BY THAT.

Vanessa reveals a piece of paper with “Even” and “Odd” written down the side of it. The headings on the paper are “Result” (over even and odd), “Tally” and “Relative Frequency.”

Vanessa says, SO IF I HAD A DICE HERE,

AND IT'S A SIX-SIDED DIE, OKAY,

LET'S PRETEND IT'S FREE OF BIAS,

ALL THE SIDES ARE EQUALLY

THE SAME SIZE

AND I DID MEASURE THEM OUT,

OKAY, WHAT IS THE LIKELIHOOD

THAT I ROLL EVEN NUMBERS,

SO THAT WOULD BE, LIKE, LANDING

ON A TWO, FOUR, OR SIX,

COMPARED TO WHAT IS

THE PROBABILITY IF I LAND--

THAT I LAND ON ODD NUMBERS

WHEN I ROLL?

ONE, THREE, OR FIVE.

NOW OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WOULD SAY

THAT YOU HAVE A FIFTY-FIFTY CHANCE

OF GETTING ODDS--

EVENS VERSUS ODDS, OKAY?

BECAUSE WE HAVE THREE OUT OF

THE SIX ARE EVEN,

AND WE ALSO HAVE THREE OF THE

SIX NUMBERS ON THE DICE ARE ODD.

BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE

ACTUALLY TRY THE EXPERIMENT

WITH, LET'S SAY, TEN TRIALS.

HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET AN ODD

NUMBER WHEN I ROLL

VERSUS HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET

AN EVEN?

IF YOU SEE, UM, HERE IS--

A TALLY,

OR A WAY THAT YOU CAN SET UP

YOUR OBSERVATIONS

FOR YOUR DATA,

SO WE HAVE OUR RESULT,

IT CAN EITHER BE EVEN OR ODD.

I'M GOING TO--

AS I ROLL THE DICE,

I'M GOING TO TALLY HOW MANY

TIMES I GET EVEN

OUT OF THE TEN ROLLS,

AND HOW MANY TIMES

I ROLLED AN ODD NUMBER

OF THE TEN ROLLS.

AND THEN WE'RE GOING

TO TALK ABOUT

RELATIVE FREQUENCY AT THE END.

THAT'S OUR FRACTION, OKAY?

SO LET'S GIVE IT A TRY.

LET'S TRY OUR EXPERIMENT

OF HOW MANY TIMES

WE CAN GET EVEN OR ODD

WHEN I ROLL THE DICE TEN TIMES.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

OKAY, SO MY FIRST ROLL

WAS A ONE.

SO ON MY TALLY SHEET,

I MARK A ONE UNDER ODD.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

MY NEXT, I ROLLED A TWO.

SO THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER,

I PUT A TALLY, OR A MARK

UNDER EVEN.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

ON MY THIRD ROLL,

I GOT FIVE,

THAT'S AN ODD NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A SIX ON MY FOURTH ROLL.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR.

THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR AGAIN.

SO WE'RE OVER HALFWAY THROUGH

OUR TRIAL,

AND AFTER SIX ROLLS, I SEE THAT

I'VE ROLLED ONE MORE EVEN

THAN WHAT IS PREDICTED

THAT I WOULD HAVE ROLLED

AT THIS TIME.

I SHOULD HAVE,

UNDER THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

ROLLED THREE EVEN AND THREE ODD,

SINCE THEY'RE EQUALLY LIKELY,

BUT YOU CAN SEE HERE THAT MY

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

IS INDEED DIFFERENT COMPARED TO

MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, TWO.

EVEN RESULTS.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, ONE. ODD.

TWO MORE ROLLS, STAY WITH ME.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, THREE.

NOW LET'S SEE

IF I CAN TIE IT UP.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, I HOPE I CAN!

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, OKAY, AND I GOT A SIX

FOR MY LAST.

OKAY, SO WHAT DOES--

WHAT DO OUR RESULTS SHOW?

OUT OF TEN TRIALS OF MY

EXPERIMENT,

I GOT SIX OUT OF TEN

WERE EVEN NUMBERS THAT I ROLLED.

WHICH MEANS I RECEIVED

FOUR OUT OF 10 TEN ROLLS

LANDED ON AN ODD NUMBER.

NOW IS THIS DIFFERENT FROM WHAT

WE WOULD HAVE PREDICTED

WITH OUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY? YES, OKAY?

SO WE SEE THAT EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,

WHEN YOU'RE DOING THE ACTIVITY,

DOESN'T ALWAYS EQUAL

THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, LET'S TRY ONE MORE EXAMPLE.

Vanessa removes the tally paper for the die and reveals a paper with “red, blue, yellow, green” under the “Result” column. Vanessa picks up her spinner.

Vanessa says, I HAVE MY TRUSTED SPINNER HERE.

OKAY, WHAT ARE THE ODDS AFTER,

LET'S SAY, UM, EIGHT ROLLS--

OR EIGHT SPINS

OF ME LANDING ON THESE FOUR

SECTIONS, OKAY?

UM...MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WOULD SAY

THAT AFTER EIGHT ROLLS, SORRY,

UM, I WOULD HAVE ROLLED--

SORRY, SPUN RED TWICE,

BLUE TWICE, YELLOW TWICE,

AND WHITE TWICE.

WHY? BECAUSE THIS IS FREE OF BIAS,

I DID MEASURE THIS AS WELL,

AS BEST AS I COULD,

AND CUT THEM-- ALL SECTIONS ARE

THE EXACT SAME, OKAY?

UM, MY SPINNER DOES WORK

THE SAME.

I TRIED MY BEST TO DO IT WITH

THE SAME PROCESS

AND ENERGY FOR EACH PULL, OKAY?

SO THAT WOULD LIKELY BE ALMOST

THE SAME.

MY SPINNER MOVES THE SAME WAY.

IT DOESN'T GET CAUGHT

ON ANY NUMBER--

OR ANY SECTIONS, I SHOULD SAY.

SO EACH SECTION HAS AN EQUAL

AFTER-- UM, FOUR ROLLS,

EACH SECTION COULD TECHNICALLY

HAVE BEEN PICKED ONCE,

AND AGAIN, AFTER ANOTHER SPIN

FOUR TIMES,

EACH SECTION COULD BE PICKED

AGAIN, OKAY?

BUT LET'S SEE AFTER EIGHT ROLLS

WHAT COLOUR I LAND ON THE MOST.

AND LET'S SEE IF IT'S DIFFERENT

FROM THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO LET'S DO ANOTHER EXPERIMENT.

WE'LL START AT THE WHITE EACH

TIME, OKAY?

[Spin, clunk]

AND MY FIRST ROLL IS ON YELLOW.

MAN, DO I WISH

I WAS RIGHT-HANDED NOW.

OKAY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO THERE IS MY FIRST ROLL.

MY SECOND ROLL.

ACTUALLY, LET'S START FROM THE WHITE

SO I DON'T CHANGE ANYTHING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, THERE'S A RED.

START FROM THE WHITE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A BLUE.

START FROM THE WHITE.

OKAY, I'M CATCHING MYSELF

WITH THAT BIAS.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND A WHITE.

SO IF YOU CAN BELIEVE IT,

AFTER FOUR ROLLS, EACH SECTION

WAS PICKED ONCE, OKAY?

SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

FOR NOW, IS WORKING.

LET'S DO FOUR MORE ROLLS

TO SEE WHERE WE--

WHAT OUR EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY ENDS UP BEING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A WHITE.

I'M GOING TO ROLL THAT ONE AGAIN

'CAUSE IT GOT CAUGHT, SO...

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, BLUE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, YELLOW.

(LAUGHING)

Vanessa says, SO FUNNY.

OKAY, AND BACK.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND THEN WHITE. OKAY.

SO WE HAVE ONE, TWO, THREE,

FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT ROLLS.

LET'S SEE WHAT OUR FINAL

FREQUENCIES, OR FRACTIONS, ARE.

OKAY, SO I GOT RED

ONE OUT OF EIGHT TIMES

ON THE ROLL.

OKAY, I GOT-- I ROLLED BLUE TWO

OUT OF EIGHT TIMES,

THE SAME AS ONE OUT OF FOUR

WHEN WE REDUCE IT

TO THE LOWEST TERM.

I GOT TWO OUT OF EIGHT ROLLS--

SPINS WERE YELLOW.

THE SAME AS-- WHICH AS THE SAME

AS ONE OUT OF FOUR,

OR TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

AND FOR WHITE, I RECEIVED THREE

OUT OF EIGHT--

SEE THAT, UM...

SPINS WERE WHITE.

SO ACTUALLY WE KNOW THAT THE

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

OF LANDING ON EACH SPIN TWICE--

EACH SECTION TWICE

DID NOT COME TRUE IN THIS CASE,

BECAUSE WE HAVE THE WHITE

SECTION BEING LANDED ON

WITH HIGHER FREQUENCY AS

COMPARED TO THE RED SECTION.

Vanessa picks up a deck of cards.

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO FINALLY,

IF I SAID TO YOU,

YOU HAVE A ONE

OUT OF FOUR CHANCE

OF PICKING A HEART

AFTER-- AFTER YOU SHUFFLE

AND YOU PICK THE TOP CARD.

OKAY, LET'S SEE.

WE'RE GOING TO TRY THAT TWICE, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF WE CAN GET

A HEART TWO TIMES.

SO THERE'S A ONE

OUT OF EIGHT CHANCE,

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

TELLS US THAT I CAN GET A HEART

TWO TIMES. SO...

Vanessa draws the top card from the deck.

Vanessa says, A FOUR OF SPADES.

She shuffles the card back into the deck.

Vanessa says, I RE-- I PUT THAT INTO THE DECK

SO THAT WE HAVE A FAIR GAME.

WE'RE NOT CHANGING

THE NUMBER OF CARDS,

WE'RE NOT INTRODUCING

ANY BIAS TO THIS.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, THE SECOND.

OKAY, I HAVE A CLUB.

SO NEITHER TIME DID I

PICK UP A HEART.

OKAY, SO AGAIN, MY EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY IS DIFFERENT

THAT MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, SO NOT ALWAYS ARE THEY

THE SAME,

AND THAT WHY WE TAKE A CHANCE

AND WE PLAY THESE GAMES,

AND WE LEARN DIFFERENT THINGS, OKAY?

I WOULD LOVE FOR YOU TO WATCH

THIS NEXT VIDEO

FROM MATH XPLOSION, OKAY?

WE LEARN ABOUT HOW,

OUT OF A GROUP OF TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE,

TWO PEOPLE WILL LIKELY

HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.

HOW DOES THAT WORK?

JUST WATCH AND SEE.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun rises.

[Rap music plays]

Children rap, WHAT A HIT

IT'S NOT A TRICK

IT'S MATHXPLOSION

JUST FOR YOU, COOL AND NEW

MATHXPLOSION

[Energetic music plays]

Eric has red hair and a red beard. He stands in front of a table

filled with party supplies. He holds a metal bowl and cracks an egg into it.

Eric asks DID YOU KNOW THAT IF YOU HAD

TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE IN A ROOM,

LIKE YOUR CLASSROOM,

FOR EXAMPLE,

TWO PEOPLE ARE VERY LIKELY TO

HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY?

Eric adds white powder to the bowl.

He says, IT'S TRUE, IT'S ALL ABOUT

SOMETHING CALLED "PROBABILITY."

WITH PROBABILITY, WE CAN MEASURE

HOW LIKELY IT IS

THAT SOMETHING WILL OCCUR.

Eric pours milk into the bowl.

He says, AND BIRTHDAYS ARE A GREAT,

AND DELICIOUS, PLACE TO START.

Eric puts a lid on the bowl and snaps his fingers. He lifts the lid and reveals a fully-baked cake.

[Snap, sigh]

Eric says, AH! DELICIOUS.

NOW LET ME PROVE MY THEORY.

Eric stands by a screen.

He asks, WHERE DO I FIND TWENTY-TWO OTHER PEOPLE?

HMM... OH! I KNOW.

THE VIDEO CALL MY WHOLE ENTIRE

FAMILY MAKES TO ME

EVERY... SINGLE... DAY.

HERE WE GO. HEY GUYS!

Twenty-two people appear in small boxes across the screen. They appear to be Eric in different costumes. They all talk at once.

[Everyone talks at once]

Eric says, SO GOOD TO SEE YOU.

YOU GUYS LOOK GREAT! PERFECT.

WE'RE READY.

APPRENTICES, TO DO THIS,

YOU FIRST NEED

TO SET UP A TALLY.

I'VE CREATED MINE

BY WRITING DOWN

EVERYONE'S BIRTHDAYS.

PERFECT, I THINK EVERYONE

IS THERE. GREAT!

NEXT, COMPARE THE TALLY TO SEE

IF ANY DATES MATCH.

Eric looks at his tallies.

He says, UH...AH!

AUNT ERICA AND BABY ERICO,

YOU GUYS HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY!

MARCH TWENTY-THIRD.

DID YOU GUYS KNOW THAT?

OF COURSE YOU DID.

YOU'RE IN THE SAME FAMILY.

REMEMBER, THE MORE PEOPLE YOU

HAVE IN YOUR GROUP,

THE GREATER THE PROBABILITY

THAT TWO PEOPLE

WILL SHARE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.

MAKES SENSE!

WELL, THAT'S IT, GUYS.

THANKS FOR TUNING IN!

WE'LL SEE YOU SOON. BYE!

BYE, MOM.

BYE, GUYS.

[Everyone talks]

Eric says, THANKS FOR HELPING OUT!

Eric draws a coin on a chalkboard.

[Scratching]

He says, CHECK THIS OUT.

A GREAT EXAMPLE OF PROBABILITY

IS A COIN TOSS.

An animated stick figure flips a coin into the air.

[Slide whistle]

Eric says, BECAUSE THERE ARE ONLY TWO

SIDES OF THE COIN,

HEADS OR TAILS,

IT MEANS THERE ARE ONLY TWO POSSIBILITIES.

THERE IS A ONE-IN-TWO

PROBABILITY, OR CHANCE,

THAT THE COIN WILL LAND

ON HEADS,

AND A ONE-IN-TWO PROBABILITY

THAT IT WILL LAND ON TAILS.

The animated coin shows heads.

Eric says, HEADS! MY TURN FIRST! YES!

SO THERE YOU HAVE IT.

I'VE SHARED

YET ANOTHER AMAZING SECRET.

HOW TO FIGURE OUT HOW LIKELY

SOMETHING WILL BE

WITH THE SECRET OF PROBABILITY.

JUST REMEMBER,

THE MORE PEOPLE YOU COUNT,

THE MORE LIKELY IT IS

THAT SOMEONE WILL SHARE

A BIRTHDAY.

TRY IT OUT WITH TWENTY-TWO

OF YOUR OWN FRIENDS!

YOU'LL BE SURE TO WOW THEM.

AND REMEMBER!

IT'S NOT MAGIC, IT'S MATH.

[Harp music plays]

A candle burns in a piece of cake.

[Energetic music plays]

“MathXplosion.”

The animated sun shines.

Vanessa sits beside a piece of paper that reads “My game twenty-five percent probability.” In a column under “Result,” H, S, C, and D are listed. The headings beside “Result” read “Tally, R.F.”

Text beneath Vanessa reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.

WASN'T THAT A GREAT VIDEO?

SO INTERESTING.

YOU SHOULD ASK THE STUDENTS

IN YOUR CLASS

WHO SHARES THE SAME BIRTHDAY,

AND SEE IF THAT PROBABILITY

WORKS OUT FOR YOU!

IN OUR CONSOLIDATION SECTION,

WE ARE GOING TO BRING EVERYTHING

WE'VE LEARNED TOGETHER

FROM TODAY'S LESSONS, OKAY?

WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT CREATING

OUR OWN EXPERIMENTS

FOR PROBABILITY.

SO THIS IS WHERE YOU CAN BRING

IN YOUR SPINNER,

YOUR DIE, YOUR COINS,

AND YOUR CARDS,

AND TRY TO MAKE A FUN GAME FOR

YOU AND YOUR FAMILY OR FRIENDS.

OKAY, SO WHAT IS EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY, AGAIN?

IT'S THE PROBABILITY THAT'S

FOUND BY, UM,

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND

RECORDING THE RESULTS.

SO AGAIN, IT'S THE NUMBER OF

TIMES AN EVENT OCCURS

OVER THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TRIALS.

SO WHAT I WOULD LIKE FOR YOU

TO DO IS CREATE

YOUR OWN PROBABILITY GAME,

GIVING YOURSELF A PROBABILITY

NEEDED TO WIN.

OKAY, SO LET'S SAY MY GAME

REQUIRES A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY,

OR ONE OUT OF FOUR, TO WIN.

SO I'M GONNA SAY TO MY FRIENDS,

"I HAVE A DECK OF CARDS HERE,

OKAY, "AND THEY'RE FREE FROM BIAS,

I HAVE FIFTY-TWO CARDS."

THEY CAN COUNT THEM.

THIRTEEN FROM EACH SUIT.

"I AM GOING TO ASK YOU

TO PICK A CARD,"EIGHT—

EIGHT SEPARATE TIMES OR TRIALS, OKAY?"

SO WE PICK UP A CARD,

WE NOTE WHAT THE RESULT IS.

IS IT A HEART, IS IT A SPADE,

IS IT A CLUB OR A DIAMOND?

OKAY, WE WOULD MARK DOWN

WHAT IT IS,

THEN I REPLACE IT ON THE DECK

SO THAT THE ODDS

DON'T CHANGE, OKAY?

YOU COULD PLAY A GAME WHERE YOU

COULD REMOVE THE CARD

AND THEN YOUR ODDS WOULD BE

ACTUALLY BETTER FOR YOU, TOO,

IF YOU WANTED TO PICK A HEART,

IF YOU REMOVED A DIFFERENT CARD

FROM THE PACK.

BUT FOR TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO

KEEP BIASES ALL THE SAME.

SO THAT MEANS YOU HAVE EQUAL

ODDS THROUGHOUT

YOUR WHOLE EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY GAME.

OKAY, SO MY GAME IS--

I'M HOPING FOR EACH SUIT

TO BE PICKED TWO TIMES,

BECAUSE WE HAVE, UM, OUT OF

EIGHT TRIES,

TWO OUT OF EIGHT IS THE SAME

AS ONE OVER FOUR,

WHICH IS A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY

TO WIN, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF I CAN PICK EACH

SUIT TWO TIMES,

AND IF WE DO, I WIN.

OKAY, GAVE IT A GOOD SHUFFLE.

SO MAKE SURE THAT YOU CREATE

YOUR TALLY SHEET.

MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR

PROBABILITY GAME.

AND MAKE SURE THAT YOU EXPLAIN

IT TO YOUR FRIENDS OR FAMILY

OR WHOEVER YOU'RE PLAYING WITH

SO YOU UNDERSTAND THE RULES

AND HOW TO WIN.

Vanessa draws the top card.

Vanessa says, MY FIRST CARD IS A...

SPADE. SO AGAIN,

I'M MARKING THAT--

OR SORRY, THAT'S A CLUB.

SORRY, SORRY.

MARKING THAT DOWN.

I'M NOT TRYING TO CHEAT,

I PROMISE.

MARK THAT DOWN, AND I RETURN IT

BACK INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, MY SECOND, AGAIN?

THE JACK OF CLUBS,

MARK THAT DOWN.

OKAY, I COULD GIVE IT A SHUFFLE

AFTER EACH TIME.

I WON'T, BECAUSE I DIDN'T

THE FIRST TIME,

AND I DON'T WANT TO CHANGE THE

RULES OF THE GAME, OKAY?

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, SO THE THIRD CARD I PULLED

IS A HEART.

MARK THAT DOWN.

SO I'M ALMOST HALF WAY THERE.

REPLACE IT INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

ANOTHER HEART.

OKAY, SO NOW I SEE THAT I HAVE

TWO HEARTS, TWO CLUBS.

SO NOW I GET TWO SPADES

AND TWO DIAMONDS,

THAT MEANS TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY

FOR EACH, AND I WON!

LET'S SEE IF I CAN GET IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

A HEART.

[Sigh]

Vanessa says, THE QUEEN OF HEARTS THOUGH,

MY FAVOURITE.

MY FAVOURITE CARD IN THE DECK.

REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE A SPADE.

REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE CLUBS.

REPLACE IT.

SO I HAVE-- WHAT DO I HAVE?

ONE MORE. ONE MORE.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, AND I HAVE ANOTHER CLUB.

SO IT SEEMS AS THOUGH MY DECK

IS REALLY CLUB-HEAVY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, SO WHAT IS MY RELATIVE

FREQUENCY, OR WHAT IS THE FRACTION?

I HAD THREE OUT OF EIGHT FLIPS

ENDED UP BEING A HEART.

ONE OUT OF EIGHT ENDED UP

BEING A SPADE.

I HAD FOUR OUT OF MY EIGHT

UM, FLIPS, OR, UH--

CARDS THAT I PICKED

BEING A CLUB,

AND I HAD ACTUALLY ZERO

OF EIGHT TRIALS

END UP BEING A DIAMOND.

SO UNFORTUNATELY, WE DIDN'T WIN

OUR GAME, MY GAME,

BECAUSE I WAS LOOKING FOR

A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,

AND I DIDN'T RECEIVE IT IN ANY

OF THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY COLUMNS.

BUT THAT'S OKAY, BECAUSE WE HAD

FUN AND WE SHARED A LAUGH.

SO WHAT'S YOUR GAME GOING TO BE?

THINK ABOUT WHAT PERCENTAGE YOU

WOULD LIKE TO WIN,

OR WHAT PROBABILITY

AND PERCENTAGE I SHOULD SAY.

THINK OF A GAME USING ONE

OF THE DIFFERENT

PROBABILITY EXPERIMENTAL PROPS

THAT YOU HAVE,

AND MAKE THEM FUN,

AND SHARE A LAUGH WITH YOUR FRIENDS.

SO NOW IS AN EPISODE

OF ODD SQUAD.

AGENT OLIVE HAS TO USE HER

PROBABILITY POWERS

DURING A TOURNAMENT OF ROCK,

PAPER, SCISSORS

TO BEAT THE VILLAINS AND HEAD

BACK TO HEADQUARTERS.

CAN SHE DO IT? LET'S FIND OUT.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE

AFTER THE BREAK.

The animated sun shines.

Olives wears her brown hair in a tight ponytail.

Olive says, MY NAME IS AGENT OLIVE.

THIS IS MY PARTNER, AGENT OTTO.

Otto has black hair. Both Olive and Otto wear an Odd Squad agent uniform with a white dress shirt, red tie, and dark blue jacket.

Olive says, THIS IS THE FINAL FRONTIER,

BUT BACK TO OTTO AND ME.

WE WORK FOR AN ORGANIZATION

RUN BY KIDS

THAT INVESTIGATES ANYTHING

STRANGE, WEIRD, AND ESPECIALLY ODD.

OUR JOB IS TO PUT THINGS

RIGHT AGAIN.

[Whirring, Clicking]

Agents arrive in tubes. They shoot along the tubes and crash through the side.

[Screaming]

Dinosaurs run through Odd Squad headquarters.

[Roar]

A tube operator says, SWITCHINATING!

Ms. O stands at the front of a boat moving through colourful balls.

Olive asks, WHO DO WE WORK FOR?

WE WORK FOR ODD SQUAD.

The front of a file folder reads “Undercover Olive.”

Olive and Otto stand in a library. A librarian wearing glasses has black hair tucked behind his ears.

The librarian says, THANKS FOR COMING, ODD SQUAD.

Otto asks, WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?

The librarian says, WELL, THE PROBLEM IS THIS.

THIS BOOK JUST APPEARED

ON THE SHELF.

Olive asks, ISN'T THAT DUSTIN?

THE GUY WHO WORKS HERE?

EXACTLY. AND WATCH THIS!

"DUSTIN WAS CALM,

DUSTIN WAS COOL,

"AND THEN DUSTIN FELL OFF

OF A LIBRARY STOOL."

A light flashes by Dustin. He falls off a library stool.

Dustin says, HEY! AUGH!

Olive and Otto say, WHOA.

The librarian reads, "DUSTIN WAS FILLED

WITH SHOCK AND APPALLED,

"THEN DUSTIN GOT TRAPPED

IN A VERY BIG BALL!"

Light flashes. A transparent ball appears around Dustin.

Dustin shouts, HELP! PLEASE STOP READING

THAT BOOK!

The librarian says, I'M SO SORRY!

Olive says, I HAVE AN IDEA.

The librarian says, HUH?

Olive says, MAY I?

WITH A STROKE OF HER PEN,

OLIVE MADE DUSTIN FREE,

AND DUSTIN LIVED

HAPPILY EVER AFTER.

Light flashes and the ball disappears.

Dustin says, I'M SO HAPPY!

THANKS, ODD SQUAD.

Otto says, NO PROBLEM.

Olive and Otto crawl behind a bookcase and disappear.

[Buzz]

The librarian looks at the book and says, THAT DOESN'T EVEN RHYME.

[Elephant trumpets]

Olive and Otto walk into Ms. O’s office. Ms. O’s black hair is pulled into a bun at the back of her head.

Olive asks, YOU WANTED TO SEE US, MS. O?

Ms. O says, YES, SOMETHING VERY BAD

HAS HAPPENED.

Otto says, YOU MEAN ODD.

Ms. O shouts, NO, I MEAN BAD!

Ms. O uses a remote to turn on a screen. On the screen, a complex system interconnecting lines appears.

[Buzz]

Ms. O says, THIS MAP SHOWS WHERE ALL THE

SECRET ENTRANCES ARE

TO THE ODD SQUAD TUBE SYSTEM.

Olive says, LET ME GUESS, ONE OF THE

VILLAINS IN TOWN FOUND THE MAP.

Ms. O says, NO!

ALL THE VILLAINS IN TOWN

FOUND IT!

WE HAVE A RECREATION

OF WHAT HAPPENED.

Puppets in a puppet theatre fight over a map.

The puppets shout, I SAW IT FIRST!

NO, I SAW IT FIRST!

THE MAP IS MINE!

Ms. O says, AS WE ALL KNOW, VILLAINS ARE

REALLY BAD AT SHARING,

SO TONIGHT, THEY'RE HAVING A BIG

ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS CONTEST

AND WHOEVER WINS

WINS THE MAP.

Olive says, BUT IF ANY VILLAIN GOT THAT MAP,

THEY COULD CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH

ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD!

Otto says, OR CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH

ANYWHERE IN HEADQUARTERS!

Ms. O says, I'M NOT FINISHED.

Ms. O claps and reveals a chalkboard with tally marks on it.

[Clap]

Ms. O says, HERE ARE TALLY MARKS

SHOWING HOW MANY VILLAINS

ARE GOING TO THE ROCK, PAPER,

SCISSORS PARTY.

Otto asks, WHAT ARE TALLY MARKS?

Olive says, TALLY MARKS ARE A FAST

AND EASY WAY TO COUNT.

Ms. O says, YOU TELL HIM, SISTER.

EACH ONE OF THESE LINES

STANDS FOR ONE,

AND THEN WHEN YOU GET TO FIVE,

YOU DRAW A LINE THROUGH

THE OTHER FOUR. LIKE THIS.

Otto says, OH.

SO THAT MEANS FIVE, TEN,

FIFTEEN, PLUS ONE EQUALS SIXTEEN VILLAINS

ARE GOING TO THE PARTY.

Ms. O says, LUCKY FOR US, THIS BAD GUY GOT

SICK AND CAN'T GO.

Olive says, SO YOU WANT ONE OF US TO DRESS

UP LIKE THAT VILLAIN,

BEAT ALL THE BAD GUYS AT ROCK,

PAPER, SCISSORS,

AND WIN THE MAP BACK?

Ms. O says, YOU KNOW, I WAS REALLY LOOKING

FORWARD TO SAYING THAT PART,

BUT NEVER MIND.

OLIVE, YOU'RE THE BEST RPS

PLAYER ON THE SQUAD.

YOU'LL PLAY.

Olive says, JUST ONE QUESTION, WHICH VILLAIN

AM I DRESSING UP AS?

[Dramatic music plays]

Ms. O hands Olive an envelope. Olive opens the envelope and her eyes grow wide.

Olive says, NO, NOT HER!

I TAKE IT BACK!

I WON'T DO IT. I CAN'T!

I JUST-- NO, I WON'T.

Ms. O smiles.

[Groan]

[Horse whinnies]

An ice cream truck is parked outside of a warehouse.

Olive sits inside the truck, dressed as a clown.

Otto says, ALL RIGHT, OLIVE, ONE MORE TIME.

WHAT'S YOUR NAME?

Olive says, KOOKY CLOWN.

Otto asks, WHY DO YOU WANT TO DESTROY

ODD SQUAD?

Olive says, SO THE WORLD CAN BE MORE KOOKY.

Otto says, LET'S HEAR THE LAUGH.

Olive laughs, HO-HO-HO.

Otto says, YOU'RE KOOKY THE CLOWN,

YOU HAVE TO BE MORE KOOKY!

Olive says, OKAY.

OOO-EE-OO! OO-EE-OO!

AH-HA-HA-HA!

Otto smiles and says, OSCAR, SHE'S READY.

Oscar rolls his chair towards Olive.

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.

THIS FLOWER CAMERA WILL LET US

SEE WHAT YOU SEE.

OH, AND HERE'S HOW WE'LL COMMUNICATE.

Olive takes an ear piece from Oscar.

Olive says, BUT WHAT ARE YOU GONNA TALK

TO ME ABOUT?

IT'S NOT LIKE YOU CAN READ

THE BAD GUYS' MINDS.

Oscar says, BUT THAT IS WHERE YOU'RE WRONG.

Otto smiles and pats Oscar on the shoulder.

Otto says, I KNEW YOU COULD READ MINDS.

Oscar says, I CAN'T READ MINDS.

BUT I HAVE TONS OF VIDEOS

OF BAD GUYS

PLAYING ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS.

OTTO AND I WILL LOOK AT

THE FOOTAGE, SEARCH FOR PATTERNS

AND MAKE A PREDICTION ABOUT WHAT

THEY'LL THROW NEXT.

Otto says, IMPRESSIVE!

BUT YOU ALREADY KNEW I THOUGHT

THAT, BECAUSE, YOU KNOW,

WE GOT A LITTLE THING HERE, RIGHT?

Oscar says, IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG,

AGENT ORSON WILL GET US OUT.

HE'S AN EXCELLENT DRIVER.

Olive peers at a baby sitting in a driver’s seat.

[Cooing]

Olive leaves the ice cream truck.

[Shoes squeaking, door slides shut]

[Energetic music plays]

A doorman says,

HEY, KOOKY, GOOD TO SEE YOU!

GOOD LUCK IN THERE.

Olive laughs, HOO-HOO-HOO!

Otto says,

OLIVE IS INSIDE.

YOU'RE DOING GREAT, OLIVE.

A man says, KOOKY.

Otto says, I'VE NEVER SEEN SO MANY VILLAINS

IN ONE PLACE.

Oscar says, UH-OH.

Todd says, SURPRISED YOU SHOWED, KOOKY.

HEARD YOU WERE FEELING FUNNY.

Oscar says, IT'S OLIVE'S OLD PARTNER,

ODD TODD.

[Sniffing]

Todd says, SOMETHING'S DIFFERENT ABOUT YOU.

Otto says, HE NOTICED OLIVE!

GET HER OUT!

Oscar says, WE CAN'T!

ORSON'S ON HIS LUNCH BREAK!

Orson eats dry cereal from a bowl on the steering wheel.

[Crunch]

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA CONVINCE

ODD TODD THAT YOU'RE KOOKY.

Olive says, UH... WOULD YOU LIKE A TOWEL?

Todd asks, WHAT FOR?

Olive sprays liquid at Todd.

Todd smiles and says, YEP. SAME OLD KOOKY.

Oscar says, THAT WAS A CLOSE ONE.

Otto says, TOO CLOSE.

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA FIT IN WITH

THE OTHER VILLAINS.

MAKE THEM THINK

THAT YOU'RE ONE OF THEM.

Olive says, COPY THAT.

A woman has her hair in a tall beehive. She talks to a man in shiny green pants.

The woman says, I'M THINKING ABOUT GOING BY

"THE" PUPPET MASTER,

BUT THEN I'VE GOT STATIONARY, AND...

TO BE HONEST, I DON'T REALLY...

The man asks, DO YOU NOT LIKE IT?

The woman says, NO.

Olive says, HELLO, PUPPET MASTER.

JELLYBEAN JOE.

Joe says, GREETINGS, KOOKY CLOWN.

Puppet Master say, HELLO, KOOKY.

WHAT ARE YOU UP TO?

Olive says, WHAT HAVEN'T I BEEN UP TO?

SO MUCH BAD, EVIL VILLAIN STUFF.

LIKE YESTERDAY, I STOLE A DIAMOND.

[Gasping]

Olive says, AND I JUST THREW IT OUT.

Joe asks, WHY'D YOU THROW IT OUT?

Olive says, BECAUSE I'M KOOKY.

I'M KOOKY THE CLOWN!

Puppet Master says, THAT DOESN'T SOUND KOOKY.

THAT JUST SOUNDS LIKE

A POOR DECISION.

IT'S PROBABLY WORTH A LOT

OF MONEY.

Joe asks, DO YOU WANT US TO HELP YOU

FIND IT?

Olive says, NO NEED, IT'S ACTUALLY--

IT'S OKAY.

Puppet Master yells, HEY, EVERYONE,

KOOKY LOST A DIAMOND!

Joe asks, HAS ANYONE SEEN A DIAMOND?

Puppet Master repeats, A DIAMOND!

Olive says,

NO, ACTUALLY, I JUST REMEMBERED!

I FOUND IT IN MY POCKET!

Joe says, OH, GOOD. CLOSE ONE.

Joe and Puppet Master stare at Olive as she nods awkwardly.

[Silence]

Puppet Master points at a table and says, LOTS OF SALAD.

Todd says, ATTENTION!

Puppet Master says, OH GOOD.

Todd shouts, GATHER ROUND, VILLAINS!

[Rock music plays]

Todd says, TONIGHT, WE COMPETE FOR THE ODD SQUAD

TUBE MAP!

[Applause]

Olive says, WOW, NEAT.

[Horn honks]

Todd says, SHAPESHIFTER! THE RULES.

Shapeshifter walks to the centre of a boxing ring. She has blue bobbed hair.

She says, IT'S SIMPLE.

ROCK SMASHES SCISSORS.

Shapeshifter’s right hand turns into a rock and her left hand turns into scissors. Her rock smashes the scissors.

She says, PAPER COVERS ROCK.

One of her hands turns into paper and the other into a rock.

The paper covers the rock.

[Growling]

One of her hands turns into scissors, the other into a piece of paper.

[Snip]

She says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER.

[Laughter, applause]

Todd shouts, EVIL REFEREE!

WHO IS PLAYING WHO?

The referee has black hair and a beard. He stands beside a chart of competitors.

The referee says, JUST A QUICK REMINDER THAT MY

FIRST NAME IS WYATT.

EVIL REFEREE IS ACTUALLY

MY LAST NAME,

WHICH I DON'T ACTUALLY USE

ON ACCOUNT OF PEOPLE

JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS ABOUT ME

WITHOUT GETTING--

Todd and Shapeshifter shout,

WHO'S PLAYING WHO?!

Wyatt says, GLAD YOU ASKED, ODD TODD.

ROUND ONE,

WE'VE GOT TINY DANCER VERSUS

JELLYBEAN JOE.

BAD KNIGHT VERSUS SHAPESHIFTER.

PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD,

AND KOOKY CLOWN VERSUS FLADAM.

OLIVE'S PLAYING FLADAM!

LET'S GET TO WORK.

[Braying, applause]

Wyatt says, EVIL KNIGHT IS OUT, OUT, OUT!

[Whistle blows]

Wyatt says, PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD!

READY, SET...THROW!

ROCK BEATS SCISSORS!

[Laughing]

Wyatt announces, ODD TODD MOVES ONTO ROUND TWO.

NEXT UP! FLADAM VERSUS KOOKY CLOWN!

[Dramatic music plays]

Fladam stretches in front of Olive.

Wyatt says, GIVING YOU A MINUTE TO STRETCH

OR TALK TO YOURSELF, WHATEVER.

Olive asks, GUYS, WHAT HAVE YOU GOT?

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.

WE WATCHED FLADAM PLAY THIRTY GAMES

OF ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS,

AND WE TALLIED UP THE RESULTS. OTTO?

Otto says, FLADAM THREW ROCK ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR TIMES.

HE THREW SCISSORS ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR TIMES.

BUT HE THREW PAPER FIVE, TEN, FIFTEEN,

TWENTY, TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO TIMES.

THAT ACTUALLY MAKES SENSE

BECAUSE FLADAM LIKES FLAT THINGS

AND PAPER IS FLAT.

Oscar says, HUH. DID YOU JUST COME UP WITH

THAT ONE NOW?

Otto says, YES, I DID.

Oscar says, GOOD ONE.

Otto says, YEAH, I MEAN,

I WAS JUST THINKING,

FLADAM LIKES FLAT THINGS,

AND PAPER IS FLAT.

AND THEN BOOM! IDEA-LADA!

Olive says, GUYS!

Oscar says, SORRY. UH, FLADAM THROWS PAPER

THE MOST AMOUNT OF TIMES,

SO HE'S MOST LIKE TO THROW IT

AGAINST YOU, TOO.

Olive says, SO I SHOULD THROW SCISSORS

TO BEAT HIM?

Otto says, PRECISELY.

[Whistle blows, applause]

Wyatt says, TIME TO DO THIS.

ALL RIGHT. I WANT A NICE,

CLEAN FIGHT.

YOU EITHER THROW ROCK, PAPER,

OR SCISSORS.

NONE OF THAT DYNAMITE BUSINESS.

READY! SET! THROW!

[Dramatic music plays]

Wyatt says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER!

FLADAM IS OUT!

KOOKY CLOWN MOVES TO ROUND TWO.

Olive yells, YES!

Otto says, YES!

Oscar says, WHOO-HOO, YEAH!

Fladam says, NO CLOWN BEATS ME!

I'LL FLATTEN YOU!

Joe runs to restrain Fladam.

Joe says, WHOA, MAN.

Todd says, HEY, GUYS, GUYS, GUYS!

IT'S OKAY. IT'S OKAY.

KOOKS, MAKE HIM A BALLOON ANIMAL.

CHEER HIM UP, COME ON.

Olive says, OF COURSE.

Olive blows into a balloon.

[Squeaking balloon]

Olive gives Fladam a long, empty balloon.

Olive says, IT'S A SNAKE. IT'S SLEEPING.

[Chuckling nervously, whistle blows]

Olive runs out of the ring.

Wyatt says, THAT'S LUNCH, EVERYBODY.

HOPE YOU LIKE QUICHE.

[Dramatic music plays]

Fladam says, LAST WEEK SHE MADE ME A FROG

KISSING A GIRAFFE

WHILE RIDING A UNICORN

WITH ONE BALLOON.

Todd says, SOMETHING IS UP WITH HER.

Joe says, YEAH.

A villain with short dark hair says, SOMETHING DOES SEEM UP.

Fladam says, BIGTIME.

Joe says, DEFINITELY UP.

Fladam says, ALL THE WAY TO THE TOP. BIGTIME.

The man with short hair says, YEAH...

[Silence]

Todd asks, SHOULD WE WALK AWAY NOW?

The other three villains say, YEAH.

The Odd Squad sigil appears. A rabbit with antlers says, TO BE CONTINUED.

[Military music plays]

Oscar says, WELCOME TO HEADQUARTERS. THE LAB.

Text reads “Welcome To Headquarters. The Lab.”

Doors slide open and Oscar walks into the lab. Agent Olaf stands beside a green table. He has short black hair.

[Whoosh]

Oscar says, GREETINGS, AGENTS.

WELCOME TO THE LAB,

WHERE I CONDUCT ALL SORTS

OF EXPERIMENTS,

BUILD GADGETS, AND--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF.

Oscar says, THAT'S OLAF.

I ASKED MS. O FOR SOME HELP

IN THE LAB,

AND SHE SENT ME AGENT--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, WHICH IS GREAT, BECAUSE I HAVE A

TON OF WORK TO DO

THE ONLY PROBLEM IS--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, HE WON'T STOP SAYING "I'M OLAF."

IN FACT, I STARTED

KEEPING TRACK.

THESE LINES ARE CALLED

TALLY MARKS.

Oscar holds up a small whiteboard and a marker.

Oscar says, A TALLY MARK ISN'T A NUMBER,

IT'S JUST A MARK.

IN THIS CASE, EACH LINE

REPRESENTS EVERY TIME

OLAF SAYS "I'M OLAF."

Oscar says, AS YOU CAN SEE, THERE IS ONE,

TWO, THREE OF THEM.

BECAUSE THAT'S HOW MANY TIMES

HE'S SAID IT.

THIS IS A QUICKER WAY

OF COUNTING,

ESPECIALLY WHEN THE THING THAT

YOU'RE COUNTING

KEEPS ON CHANGING--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says,...SO QUICKLY.

SEE? NOW THERE'S ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR MARKS.

BECAUSE OLAF SAID "I'M OLAF"

A TOTAL OF FOUR TIMES.

THIS IS A LOT QUICKER THAN

HAVING TO ERASE

AND REWRITE THE NUMBER EVERY

SINGLE TIME IT CHANGES.

WATCH, ANY SECOND NOW,

HE'LL SAY IT AGAIN. HUH.

GUESS HE'S GOTTEN IT OUT

OF HIS SYSTEM,

WHICH IS GREAT,

'CAUSE I HAVE A--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, AND THERE IT IS.

I'LL PUT ANOTHER MARK DOWN,

ONLY THIS TIME,

I'LL DO IT LIKE THIS.

NOW I KNOW THAT THIS GROUP HERE

EQUALS FIVE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, MAKE THAT SIX. SO I'LL START A

NEW TALLY MARK OVER HERE.

FIVE, PLUS THIS ONE TALLY MARK

OVER HERE EQUALS SIX.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, LET'S MAKE THAT SEVEN.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, THAT'S EIGHT.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, NINE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, TEN. AND THIS IS JUST TODAY.

YOU SHOULD SEE YESTERDAY.

Tally marks cover a large whiteboard.

Olaf says, I AM OLAF.

Oscar says, I'M GOING TO NEED

ANOTHER WHITEBOARD.

[Energetic music plays]

Odd Squad end credits roll.

Featuring:

Olive: Dalila Bela.

Otto: Filip Geljo.

Ms. O: Millie Davis.

Oscar: Sean Michael Kyer.

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

The paper on the board next to Vanessa reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK FROM THAT GREAT

EPISODE OF ODD SQUAD.

TO REVIEW, TODAY WE TALKED ABOUT

THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WHICH IS THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF

POSSIBLE OUTCOMES.

AND WE DISCUSSED EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY.

SO WHAT RESULTS DO WE GET AFTER

WE CONDUCT AN EXPERIMENT.

SO THE NUMBER OF TIMES

AN EVENT OCCURS

OVER THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF TRIALS.

WHAT GAME DID YOU COME UP WITH?

I'VE GOT A DIFFERENT WAY

TO EXPRESS--

OR TO WIN A GAME WITH TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

IF YOU WANT TO MAKE A SPINNER

WITH FOUR DIFFERENT SECTIONS,

AND YOU WANT TO DO EIGHT SPINS,

AND YOU WIN IF YOU GET EACH

SECTION TWO TIMES.

THAT WOULD BE ANOTHER WAY

TO PLAY A GAME

WITH A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,

OR ONE OVER FOUR.

SO WHATEVER YOU DECIDE,

MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE FUN

AND YOU HAVE A GREAT TIME

LEARNING MATH.

AND CONTINUE ON WITH

THE POSITIVE AFFIRMATIONS

THAT WE'VE BEEN PRACTICING OVER

THESE PAST FEW WEEKS.

THEY'LL REALLY HELP BUILD YOUR

CONFIDENCE AND BE AWESOME,

AND REALLY ENJOY ENJOY YOUR TIME

WITH MATH.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SPENDING

THE PAST SIXTY MINUTES WITH ME.

I HOPE YOU LEARNED SOMETHING,

AND I HOPE YOU SHARED A LAUGH

OVER THE PAST HOUR.

MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA.

IT'S BEEN AWESOME

BEING WITH YOU,

AND I'LL SEE YOU AGAIN ON

ANOTHER EPISODE

OF THE TVOKIDS POWER HOUR

OF LEARNING. TAKE CARE.

The animated sun shines.

[Upbeat music plays]

Text reads “TVO Kids would like to thank all the teachers involved in the Power Hour of Learning as they continue to teach the children of Ontario from their homes.”

“TVO Power Hour of Learning.”

TVOKIDS POWER HOUR OF LEARNING.

TODAY'S JUNIOR LESSON:

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Text reads ”TVOkids Power Hour of Learning.

Teacher Edition. Today's junior lesson:

Experimental and Theoretical Probability.

A woman with long black hair and black-framed glasses sits with her arms crossed on a table in front of her. She wears a floral print long-sleeved shirt and has a photo of the Toronto skyline on a wall behind her. On the table are two cardboard cubes marked with the pips of six-sided dice.

Text reads Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Teacher Vanessa say, HI STUDENTS, HOW ARE YOU?

MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA,

AND WELCOME TO ANOTHER EPISODE

OF TVOKIDS POWER HOUR

OF LEARNING.

WE'RE GOING TO SPEND THE NEXT SIXTY

MINUTES DIVING DEEP INTO

THE WORLD OF EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

WE'RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT

OF FUN, PLAY A LOT OF GAMES,

AND LEARN A LOT.

BUT BEFORE WE DO,

I THOUGHT WE COULD DO SOME

MINDFULNESS AND DEEP BREATHING EXERCISES

WITH THE HELP OF...

Vanessa picks up a cardboard die.

She continues, A PROBABILITY DEVICE

SUCH AS A DICE.

SO WHATEVER NUMBER I LAND ON

WHEN I ROLL

IS HOW MANY DEEP BELLY BREATHS

WE'RE GOING TO TAKE

TO CALM OUR MIND, AND SET OUR--

GET US READY FOR SOME MATH LEARNING.

ARE YOU READY?

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

She says, SIX. I THINK WE ALL NEED

SIX BREATHS,

THE MOST WE COULD GET. OKAY?

SO BREATHE IN THROUGH YOUR NOSE,

AND OUT THROUGH YOUR MOUTH.

THAT'S ONE.

Vanessa breathes deeply.

She says, GOOD JOB. FOUR.

LAST ONE.

AND I FEEL WE ALL NEED THOSE

BREATHS TO CENTRE US

AND GET US GROUNDED

AND READY TO LEARN MATH.

Vanessa holds up a piece of paper that reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO TALK

ABOUT THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

WHICH LOOKS AT THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

OR THE LIKELIHOOD

OF SOMETHING HAPPENING,

AN EVENT HAPPENING,

OVER THE TOTAL POSSIBLE OUTCOMES

THAT MIGHT HAPPEN.

SO FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU HAD

A COIN THAT YOU WANTED TO TOSS,

YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF GETTING A HEADS OR TAILS,

EQUALLY LIKELY, BECAUSE WE KNOW

THERE'S ONLY TWO

DIFFERENT OUTCOMES,

HEADS OR TAILS,

AND AS WELL, THERE'S ONLY ONE OR

TWO DIFFERENT OUTCOMES TO GET.

SO IF YOU HAVE--IF YOU ROLL HEADS,

YOU HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO PROBABILITY,

OR ODDS, THAT YOU WOULD

GET THAT.

Vanessa holds a piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

She explains, IN TERMS OF EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY, IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY

REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT

WHERE YOU MIGHT GET

A DIFFERENT RESULT,

SO JUST BECAUSE OUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY SAYS YOU CAN HAVE

A ONE IN TWO CHANCE OF ROLLING,

UM, A DICE-- SORRY,

FLIPPING A COIN

AND GETTING A TAILS,

IF YOU'RE TO DO THAT TWO TIMES,

YOU HAVE, AGAIN,

A ONE OUT TWO CHANCE--

AND A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF GETTING A TAILS,

BUT MAYBE YOU GET TAILS

ON BOTH TRIES,

SO YOUR EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

MIGHT BE DIFFERENT

THAN YOUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY.

AND WE'RE ALSO GOING TO TALK

ABOUT SOMETHING KNOWN AS BIAS.

HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR TRIALS,

HOW DOES THAT EFFECT OUR ODDS,

AND WHAT CAN WE DO TO MAKE SURE

THAT THE GAMES WE ARE PLAYING

ARE FAIR?

SO FOR TODAY'S EPISODE

AND LESSON, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED SOME

MARKERS, SOME PAPER, ANY WRITING

UTENSIL IS FINE.

UM, IF YOU HAVE SOME DICE LAYING

AROUND, IF YOU HAVE A COIN,

IF YOU HAVE A SPINNER FROM--

MAYBE ONE OF YOUR BOARD GAMES

THAT YOU COULD USE, IT WOULD

COME IN HANDY TODAY.

AND WE'RE GOING TO LOOK AT

TALLYING,

WE'RE GOING TO LEARN KEEPING

DETAILED NOTES

OF OUR EXPERIMENT

AND HOW THAT CAN EFFECT,

UM, HOW WE CAN READ THOSE

OUTCOMES AS WE PLAY OUR GAMES.

BUT BEFORE WE BEGIN, I'M GOING

TO ASK THAT YOU WATCH A VIDEO

FROM TEACHER-- TEACHER SARAH,

AND SHE'S GOING TO TEACH US

JUST THE IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING

THE DIFFERENCE

BETWEEN THEORETICAL AND

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

SO WATCH THE VIDEO, TAKE A FEW

NOTES, AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE.

An animated sun rises.

A woman with bobbed brown hair wears a blue shirt. She stands beside a whiteboard. Text beneath Sarah reads “Teacher Sarah.”

The whiteboard reads “Probability: What are the chances? Probability refers to the likelihood of an event happening. There are two kinds of probability: Theoretical and Experimental. Theoretical Probability: In theory, the mathematical/statistical odds of an event occurring based on the number of favourable outcomes and total number of outcomes. Experimental Probability: A measure of the likelihood of an event, based on DATA collected/ obtained from an experiment.”

Sarah says, HI TVOKIDS, I'M TEACHER SARAH,

AND TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT SOMETHING

REALLY COOL AND EXCITING

CALLED "PROBABILITY."

PROBABILITY REFERS TO THE

LIKELIHOOD OF AN EVENT

HAPPENING OR OCCURRING.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF

PROBABILITY.

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

AND EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY.

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY HAS TO

DO WITH THE THEORY,

SO IN THEORY, THE MATHEMATICAL

OR STATISTICAL ODDS

OF AN EVENT OCCURRING BASED

ON THE NUMBER

OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES, AND THE

TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.

NOW EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,

THAT HAS TO DO

WITH THE LIKELIHOOD

OF AN EVENT HAPPENING

BASED ON DATA COLLECTED

OR OBTAINED

FROM A SPECIFIC EXPERIMENT.

SO TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO TALK

MORE CLOSELY

ABOUT THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

[Upbeat music plays]

Sarah hits a button and the screen of the whiteboard changes to read “Theoretical Probability: Playing Cards. In a regular deck of playing cards there are: four suits (hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades), Fifty-two cards (not including the jokers), twenty-six red cards, twenty-six black cards, thirteen cards per suit.”

Sarah says, THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

OF PLAYING CARDS.

NOW LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO TAKE

A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING CARDS.

IN A REGULAR DECK OF PLAYING

CARDS, THERE ARE FOUR SUITS.

HEARTS, SPADES, CLUBS,

AND DIAMONDS.

OUT OF THOSE FOUR SUITS,

TWO ARE RED AND TWO ARE BLACK.

THERE ARE ALSO TIRTEEN CARDS PER SUIT.

SO SUPPOSE YOU WANTED TO KNOW,

"HMM, WHAT ARE THE ODDS

OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A HEART

"OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS?"

WELL, IN ORDER TO FIND THAT OUT,

YOU HAVE TO FIND

THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO WE NEED TO KNOW TWO THINGS.

THE FIRST THING WE HAVE TO KNOW

IS THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OR DESIRED OUTCOMES.

IN THIS CASE, WHAT WE WANT TO

KNOW IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW THE TOTAL

NUMBER OF OUTCOMES,

AND IN THIS CASE, IT'S FIFTY-TW0,

'CAUSE THERE ARE FIFTY-TWO CARDS

TO CHOOSE FROM.

Sarah hits a button and the whiteboard changes. It reads “In this case, the favourable outcome (or the one that we want) is hearts. We know that there are thirteen hearts in a regular deck of cards. Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Theoretical Probability (TP) equals Thirteen over Fifty-two. We also know the total number of outcomes. In this case, there are fifty-cards in total so our number of total outcomes is fifty-two.”

SO AS WE SAID,

THE FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,

THE ONE THAT WE WANT, OR THE ONE

WE'RE LOOKING FOR, IS HEARTS.

WE ALSO KNOW

THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS

IN A REGULAR DECK OF CARDS.

SO THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

IS THE NUMBER

OF FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

DIVIDED BY

THE TOTAL NUMBER OF OUTCOMES.

NOW WE CAN JUST PLUG IN

OUR VALUES.

AS WE SAID, WE KNOW

THAT THERE ARE THIRTEEN HEARTS

OUT OF THOSE FIFTY-TWO CARDS.

AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS...IN TOTAL.

SO TO FIND THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY, WE ALWAYS START

WITH OUR FORMULA.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard displays a screen for “TP equals number of favourable outcomes over total number of outcomes. Remember to reduce to simplest form!”

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

WE CAN USE TP FOR SHORT.

THEN WE WRITE OUT THE FORMULA

AND SUBSTITUTE IN OUR VALUES.

SO WE HAD THIRTEEN HEARTS, WHICH IS

OUR FAVOURABLE OUTCOME,

AND FIFTY-TWO CARDS IN TOTAL.

NOW WE HAVE TO REMEMBER, WE

ALWAYS WANT TO REDUCE FRACTIONS

TO SIMPLEST FORM.

SO WHAT THAT MEANS IS WE ARE

LOOKING FOR THE GREATEST

COMMON FACTOR THAT CAN GO INTO

BOTH THE NUMERATOR

AND THE DENOMINATOR.

AND IN THIS CASE, OUR SIMPLEST

FORM WOULD BE ONE QUARTER.

WE'RE ALMOST THERE.

SO YOU MIGHT BE ASKING YOURSELF,

HOW DO YOU EXPRESS PROBABILITY?

WELL, THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT

WAYS WE CAN DO THAT.

WE CAN EXPRESS PROBABILITY

AS A FRACTION.

ONE QUARTER.

AS A PERCENT, OR PER HUNDRED.

TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

OR AS A DECIMAL VALUE BETWEEN

ZERO AND ONE.

SO IN THIS CASE,

OUR DECIMAL WOULD BE TWENTY-FIVE

HUNDREDTHS, OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE.

ZERO REPRESENTS THE IMPOSSIBLE,

AND ONE REPRESENTS CERTAIN,

SO PROBABILITY IS MOST COMMONLY

EXPRESSED AS A VALUE

BETWEEN ZERO AND ONE, WHICH LETS

US KNOW HOW IMPOSSIBLE

OR HOW CERTAIN AN EVENT IS

OF OCCURRING.

SO YOU CAN TRY THESE ON YOUR OWN.

Sarah hits the button and the whiteboard reads “Try these! One, What is the probability of randomly selecting a CLUB from a regular deck of playing cards?

Two, What is the probability of randomly selecting a SPADE or a HEART from a regular deck of playing cards? What is the probability of randomly selecting a JACK from a regular deck of playing cards?

Sarah asks, WHAT IS THE PROBABILITY

OF RANDOMLY SELECTING A CLUB

FROM A REGULAR DECK

OF PLAYING CARDS?

THINK ABOUT THE FAVOURABLE

OUTCOMES DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL NUMBER

OF OUTCOMES.

WHAT ABOUT THE PROBABILITY OF

A SPADE OR A HEART?

THIS ONE'S A LITTLE TRICKY,

'CAUSE YOU'D HAVE TO ADD

THE TWO TOGETHER.

AND LASTLY, WHAT MIGHT THE

PROBABILITY BE

OF CHOOSING A JACK IN A REGULAR

DECK OF PLAYING CARDS?

THERE YOU HAVE IT, TVOKIDS.

YOU ARE NOW PROBABILITY

PRO-STARS!

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa has a piece of paper propped up on a table in front of her. The paper reads “Flip a coin twenty times! Heads. Tails.”

Text beneath her reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.

I HOPE YOU ENJOYED THAT VIDEO

FROM TEACHER SARAH.

WE'RE GOING TO AGAIN LOOK AT

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO IF I ASKED YOU

TO FLIP A COIN TWENTY TIMES,

WHAT WOULD THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY BE

FOR LANDING ON HEADS,

OR LANDING ON TAILS AFTER

THOSE TWENTY FLIPS?

WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE

A ONE OUT OF TWO CHANCE

OF FLIPPING A COIN AND LANDING

ON HEADS, OKAY?

TIMES TWENTY TIMES,

THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE.

WE KNOW THAT FRACTION.

NOW I CAN GO ACROSS.

I GET TWENTY OVER TWO,

OR TEN TIMES OUT OF TWENTY

THAT WE SHOULD LAND ON HEADS.

SAME THING FOR TAILS.

I HAVE A ONE OUT OF TWO

PROBABILITY AGAIN,

BECAUSE TAILS IS ONE OPTION,

OR ONE OUTCOME,

WHEN THERE'S TWO THAT

ARE POSSIBLE, HEAD OR TAILS.

AGAIN, AFTER TWENTY FLIPS,

THAT'S THE SAME AS TWENTY OVER ONE,

I HAVE TWENTY OVER TWO

AS MY FRACTION,

IT'S THE SAME AS GETTING TAILS

TEN TIMES.

SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

STATES THAT IF YOU WERE TO FLIP

A COIN TWENTY TIMES,

YOU SHOULD GET HEADS TEN TIMES,

AS WELL AS TAILS TEN TIMES.

NOW IF WE ADD TEN AND TEN,

WE KNOW THAT EQUALS TWENTY

AND THAT WOULD BE AFTER THE

TOTAL AMOUNT OF FLIPS.

SO YOU HAVE

AN EQUALLY LIKELY CHANCE

OF GETTING HEADS AS YOU ARE

TO FLIPPING A COIN

AND LANDING ON TAILS.

Vanessa removes the paper and puts a new piece of paper on a board. It reads “Theoretical Probability. One, suit. Two, suits. Face cards.”

Vanessa asks, NOW WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITIES FOR THESE OUTCOMES?

IF YOU HAVE A DECK OF CARDS,

YOU KNOW THAT THERE ARE

FOUR SUITS IN THE DECK OF CARDS.

UM, HEARTS, DIAMONDS,

SPADES, AND CLUBS.

SO YOUR PROBABILITY,

YOUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

OF SHUFFLING AND PICKING UP

THE TOP CARD

OF GETTING ANY ONE OF THOSE

FOUR SUITS,

YOU HAVE A THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY OF ONE OUT OF FOUR.

AGAIN, THE FOUR SUITS

AND THE PROBABILITY

OF YOU PICKING ONE OF THEM

SO YOU HAVE ONE OUT OF FOUR,

OR A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENTCHANCE,

OR ZERO POINT TWO FIVE, OR TWENTY-FIVE HUNDREDTHS,

ON THAT NUMBER LINE BETWEEN

ZERO AND ONE

CHANCE OF PICKING OUT A HEART.

OKAY, A HEART SUIT OF THE FOUR.

WHAT ARE THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY-- WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY OF PICKING UP

A HEART OR A DIAMOND,

FOR EXAMPLE.

SO WE KNOW THAT THAT'S TWO

OF THE POSSIBLE FOUR SUITS.

WE HAVE HEARTS, DIAMONDS,

CLUBS, AND SPADES.

THOSE ARE THE FOUR

POSSIBILITIES.

AND WE SAID THAT WE--

WHAT ARE THE ODDS OF US PICKING

A HEART OR A DIAMOND?

SO TWO OUT OF THE FOUR,

OR ONE HALF,

OR FIFTY PERCENT CHANCE OF YOU PICKING

TWO DIFFERENT SUITS.

FINALLY, WHAT IS THE THEORETICAL

OF YOU PICKING OUT A FACE CARD?

NOW FACE CARDS ARE JACK,

KING, QUEEN, OKAY?

SO THREE OF THEM, AND WE HAVE

FOUR DIFFERENT SUITS.

SO YOU HAVE A PROBABILITY

OF TWELVE OUT OF FIFTY-TWO.

WHICH CAN BE REDUCED DOWN TO,

UH, THREE OVER THIRTEEN.

SO THOSE ARE YOUR ODDS

OF PICKING OUT A FACE CARD

ANYTIME YOU DRAW A CARD

FROM THE DECK. OKAY?

Vanessa shows her Theoretical Probability equation. “Number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

She says, NOW THIS IS ALL GREAT WHEN WE

HAVE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

OKAY, BUT UNFORTUNATELY,

WE HAVE SOMETHING CALLED "BIAS."

UM, SO WHAT IS BIAS?

BIAS CAN AFFECT THE OUTCOMES

OF AN EXPERIMENT,

OF ANY TYPE OF GAME YOU PLAY,

MEANING THAT IT HAS BEEN ALMOST,

LIKE, RIGGED, OR CHANGED THE ODDS IN

SOMEBODY ELSE'S FAVOUR,

OR MAYBE IN YOUR FAVOUR

IN SOME CASES.

SO IF YOU HAD, UH--

SOMEONE SAYS "FLIP A COIN,"

AND THEY CHANGE IT TO BOTH SIDES

OF THE COIN BEING TAILS,

THERE WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY NO WAY

FOR YOU TO WIN

IF THEY SAID YOU COULD FLIP A

COIN AND LAND ON TAILS--

UM, WHEN BOTH SIDES ARE HEADS,

FOR EXAMPLE.

Vanessa holds up a spinner divided into blue, white, yellow and red quarters.

[Squeak]

Vanessa says, OKAY, IF YOU HAD A WHEEL,

AND THIS DIDN'T MOVE FROM THE

WHITE SECTION, FOR EXAMPLE,

IT ONLY STAYED HERE

WHEN YOU ROLLED,

OR WHEN YOU SPUN, SORRY,

AND YOU WIN BY LANDING ON ONE OF

THESE THREE SECTIONS,

OTHER SECTIONS, IT WOULD BE

IMPOSSIBLE FOR YOU TO WIN,

SO THAT WOULD NOT ALLOW THIS

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

TO EVER TAKE EFFECT, OKAY?

SO WHEN YOU GO TO, LIKE,

THE CARNIVAL,

OR YOU'RE GOING TO AN ARCADE,

YOU WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT

THE GAMES THAT YOU'RE PLAYING

ARE FREE OF BIAS,

MEANING THAT THEY ARE FAIR,

AND THE PROBABILITY THAT

YOU CALCULATE

CAN ACTUALLY HAPPEN, OKAY?

SO THAT'S SOMETHING FOR YOU

TO LOOK OUT FOR.

SO NOW WE'RE GOING TO WATCH A

VIDEO FROM LOOK KOOL,

WHERE HAMZA IS GOING TO DISCUSS

THE PROBABILITY

OF DIFFERENT CARNIVAL GAMES

THAT YOU ARE GOING TO ABSOLUTELY

ENJOY WATCHING

AND LEARNING A LOT FROM.

SO CHECK IT OUT,

AND I'LL MEET YOU HERE

AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun shines in a blue sky.

Toast pops out of Kool Cat’s back. Burnt into the toast is “Hands-on.” Beneath that is are two small paw prints.

[Energetic music plays]

A male announcer says, HANDS ON!

A photo of a smiling man appears. The man has short brown hair. He wears a red vest over a plaid shirt and has a cream-coloured jacket over the vest.

Hamza says, JUSTIN STUDIES

BOTH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.

HE PLANS TO BE A DOCTOR

AND USE HIS SKILLS

TO HELP PEOPLE

ALL OVER THE WORLD!

Justin stands behind a red table with a whiteboard propped up on an easel to his right. To his left stand a boy with black hair and a girl with long brown hair.

Justin explains, SO TODAY WE'RE GOING TO BE

DOING AN EXPERIMENT

ABOUT PROBABILITY, AND THE WAY

THAT WE'RE GONNA DO THAT

IS BY LAUNCHING ANTACID ROCKETS.

AND EVERY TIME THEY LAUNCH,

YOU ARE GOING TO TELL ME

THE TIME,

AND I'M GOING TO PLOT IT ON

THIS GRAPH RIGHT HERE

THAT SAYS THE NUMBER OF ROCKETS

ON THE Y AXIS,

AND THE NUMBER OF SECONDS

IT TOOK TO LAUNCH ON THE X AXIS.

WE'RE GONNA PUT

OUR LAB GOGGLES ON.

YOU'VE GOT YOUR ANTACID TABLET,

YOU'RE GONNA POP IT IN THERE,

LET IN THE WATER,

THERE WE GO.

OH, IT'S FIZZING! IT'S FIZZING!

IT'S FIZZING!

SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!

OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

[Lid snaps]

Justin says, WHOA!

The girl says, FIVE SECONDS.

Justin says, FIVE SECONDS, OKAY.

SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE, SHAKE!

BIG STEP BACK.

The boy and Justin say, WHOA.

[Pop]

The girl says, THAT WAS TEN SECONDS.

Justin says, OKAY, PUT IT UPSIDE DOWN.

They say, WHOA!

[Laughing]

The girl says, TEN SECONDS AGAIN.

The boy asks, WHERE'D IT GO?

Justin says,

HERE WE GO.

The boy says, IT'S SURPRISING ME EVERY TIME.

They say, WHOA!

The girl says, ABOUT TWENTY SECONDS.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

The girl says, I THINK IT'S GOING TO BE A

LITTLE BIT LONGER.

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Pop]

They exclaim, WHOA!

[Laughing]

Justin says, SO NOW THAT WE'RE DONE LAUNCHING

ALL OF OUR ROCKETS,

THIS GRAPH IS SHOWING THAT

AT TEN SECONDS,

THERE WERE A LOT OF ROCKETS THAT

LAUNCHED, RIGHT?

The boys says,

RIGHT.

Justin says, YEAH, 'CAUSE WE HAVE A

WHOLE BUNCH OF DOTS THERE.

WERE THERE A LOT THAT LAUNCHED

AFTER TEN SECONDS?

The girl says, NOT QUITE A LOT.

Justin traces a line over the highest dots over each number.

Justin says, WHAT THIS ACTUALLY INTRODUCES IS

THE IDEA OF A BELL CURVE.

AND WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS A BELL

IN THE END.

AND WHAT IT SHOWS US IS THAT

THINGS THAT ARE HIGHER

ON THE BELL ARE MORE PROBABLE.

The girl says, YEAH, YEAH.

A robotic female voice says,

TO BE MORE CERTAIN OF WHEN

SOMETHING IS PROBABLY

GOING TO HAPPEN, LIKE THE

AVERAGE TIME IT TAKES

TO POP POPCORN, IT IS BEST TO

DO MANY TESTS TO GET

AN ACCURATE BELL CURVE.

[Popcorn pops]

Justin says,

NOW I'VE GOT SOMETHING REALLY

COOL TO SHOW YOU.

HERE WE GO, BACK, BACK HERE.

Justin flips over multiple containers connected to board. He and the two children back up to a road.

The boy says, YEP, YEP, YEP.

Justin says, LET'S WATCH IT.

Rockets pop.

[Popping]

Justin says, WHOA! THERE'S ONE.

OKAY, TWO.

The boy says, OH, TWO! THREE.

Justin says, YEP.

The girl says, FOUR, FIVE...

Justin says, YEAH.

The children count, SIX...

YEP, SEVEN.

EIGHT, NINE.

Justin says, OH, YEP.

The girl counts, TEN, ELEVEN.

Justin exclaims, WHOA!

The boy says, THEY'RE ALL POPPING.

Justin says, HERE THEY GO. YEAH, YEAH. WOW!

Rockets pop and the lids land on the pavement.

[Popping, clattering]

Justin says, IT'S RAINING ROCKETS.

[Clattering]

Justin says, YOU GONNA KEEP GOING? YEP.

SO WE'VE BEEN WATCHING, RIGHT?

THERE WAS A FEW,

AND THEN A WHOLE BUNCH, AND NOW

THERE'S JUST A COUPLE.

[Popping]

Hamza says,

I SEE, USING MORE SAMPLES

CREATED A MORE ACCURATE

BELL CURVE.

NICE JOB, INVESTIGATORS!

WHAT DID YOU DISCOVER?

The boy says, WELL, I'M COOL WITH LAUNCHING

ONE THOUSAND OF THESE ROCKETS

'CAUSE I KNOW IT WILL JUST

MAKE MY BELL CURVE

EVEN MORE ACCURATE.

Justin nods.

The girl says, YEAH.

Hamza says, THANKS, INVESTIGATORS!

THANK YOU, JUSTIN!

The boy and girl wave and say, BYE!

[Honk, squealing brakes]

Kool Cat and a yellow cat zoom through a rope

Text reads “Challenge.”

The announcer says, CHALLENGE

[Cheering]

Hamza stand in a field in front of a row of blue and yellow flags. He and four children wear colourful curly wigs. A boy and a girl wear blue shirts while, on the other team, a boy and girl wear yellow shirts. A member of each team sits on a chair on a wooden platform. Over each chair, an empty balloon dangles on a pole. On the ground, resting on both platforms, is a meter with a needle on it, showing blue changing to purple changing to red.

Hamza says, WELCOME BACK TO THE

LOOK COOL

PROBABILITY CARNIVAL!

TEAM BLUE, TEAM YELLOW,

ARE YOU PUMPED?

The children yell, YEAH!

Hamza says, EXCELLENT, BECAUSE IN THIS PART

OF THE CHALLENGE,

WE'RE GOING TO SEE WHICH TEAM

CAN PUMP THE MOST AIR

INTO THE BALLOON WITHOUT

POPPING IT.

OF COURSE, YOU'RE GOING TO NEED

TO HAVE AN IDEA

OF HOW MANY PUMPS A BALLOON CAN

TAKE BEFORE IT POPS,

SO I'VE MADE A PROBABILITY SCALE

TO GUIDE YOU.

Flashback, Hamza pumps and looks at a balloon as it fills.

[Pumping]

Hamza narrates, I DISCOVERED IT WAS HIGHLY

UNLIKELY THAT ANY BALLOONS

WOULD POP BETWEEN ZERO AND NINE

PUMPS OF AIR.

BUT AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS,

IT BECAME LIKELY.

NOW ALL OF THEM BROKE,

BUT SOME DID.

A balloon pops and water spills out of it.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AFTER FIFTEEN PUMPS, THE BALLOONS

WERE VERY LIKELY TO BURST.

[Splash]

Hamza says, AND MOST DID.

AND ONCE I GOT TO TWENTY-SEVEN PUMPS,

EVERY BALLOON POPPED.

IT WAS DEFINITE!

In the present, Hamza says, SO IT'S A GAME OF CHICKEN.

EACH TEAM GETS TO PUMP.

THE MORE AIR YOU PUMP,

THE MORE POINTS YOU WIN,

BUT BE CAREFUL!

BURST YOUR BALLOON AND YOU LOSE!

ALL RIGHT, TEAM BLUE!

SIX PUMPS, LET'S GO.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,

TWO, THREE,

FOUR, FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, TEAM YELLOW, SIX PUMPS.

[Pumping]

Everyone counts pumps,

ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR,

FIVE, SIX.

Hamza says, THREE MORE PUMPS.

ONE, TWO, THREE.

ONE, TWO, THREE.

THAT BRINGS US UP TO NINE PUMPS.

ANYMORE THAN THIS,

AND WE LEAVE THE SAFE ZONE.

LET'S TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THIS

WITH MY MIND'S EYE GLASSES.

A robotic voice says,

WE CANNOT KNOW THE EXACT

OUTCOME OF THIS CHALLENGE

BECAUSE THE STRUCTURE

OF EACH BALLOON

MAY BE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT

AND CHALLENGERS

MIGHT PUMP SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT

AMOUNTS OF AIR

DEPENDING ON HOW HARD

THEY PUMP.

THAT'S WHY WE SAY SOMETHING

IS "LIKELY" OR "UNLIKELY."

Hamza says,

WE ARE NOW AT TWELVE.

IT'S BECOMING MORE AND MORE LIKELY.

NINETEEN, TWENTY.

TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO, TWENTY-THREE.

A child mutters, THAT WATER...

Hamza says, TWENTY-FOUR.

The balloon over the blue team member bursts and water drenches him.

[Pop]

[Cheering]

[Laughing]

A replay shows the water drenching the blue team member.

Hamza says, OH, WE HAVE A WINNER,

AND UNFORTUNATELY,

DONATO GETS SOAKED AGAIN!

TEAM YELLOW TAKES IT

WITH TWENTY-FOUR PUMPS!

Team yellow cheers, TEAM YELLOW!

Hamza says, CONGRATULATIONS!

[Upbeat music plays]

Hamza sits on a chair under an empty balloon, holding a bucket of popcorn. The teams stand beside two pumps.

Hamza says, WELL, THAT WAS NERVE-WRACKING.

CONGRATULATIONS TO BOTH TEAMS.

YOU GET TO KEEP YOUR CLOWN WIGS

TO REMIND YOU OF THE TIME

YOU LIVED ON THE EDGE.

Donato says, YEAH, WELL, WE'VE GOT A GIFT

FOR YOU, TOO.

[Pumping]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, NOT VERY LIKELY.

NOTHING IS GOING TO HAPPEN.

PUMP IT UP SOME MORE.

[Pop]

The balloon full of water bursts over Hamza.

[Splash]

[Laughing]

Hamza eats popcorn and says, THIS IS STILL PRETTY GOOD,

YOU GUYS WANT SOME?

WANT SOME POPCORN? NO, OKAY.

Kool Cat rolls his eyes.

[Grinding, blink]

Hamza says, AH! I THINK I'VE STILL GOT SOME

WATER IN MY EARS.

BUT AT LEAST I UNDERSTAND

PROBABILITY A LOT BETTER,

WHICH IS WHY I THINK

I CAN BEAT KOOL CAT

AT ONE MORE COIN FLIP.

An animated four-leaf clover jumps on a table beside Kool Cat.

The clover asks, ARE YA FEELING LUCKY, PUNK?

Hamza says, I'VE GOT SOMETHING BETTER

THAN LUCK, PUNK.

I'VE GOT MATH.

Hamza blows the clover off of the table.

[Blowing, clover yelps]

The clover lands on the floor.

The clover says, OOF, I'M STARTING TO FEEL A

LITTLE UNLUCKY.

A horseshoe falls on the clover.

[Thunk]

The clover groans, AW, MAN.

Hamza says, ALL RIGHT, KOOL CAT, WHAT DO YOU

SAY TO ONE MORE COIN FLIP?

LOSER HAS TO DO THE WINNER'S

CHORES FOR A WEEK. DEAL?

[Meow]

Kool Cat nods vigorously.

Hamza says, LET 'ER FLIP!

He flips a coin.

[Slide whistle]

Hamza says, TAILS!

HAH! IT'S TAILS! I'VE GOT YOU!

[Meow]

Hamza says, YOU WANT TO KNOW HOW I KNEW

IT WOULD BE TAILS

THIS TIME AROUND?

THE PROBABILITY OF IT

LANDING TAILS

SO MANY TIMES IN A ROW

WAS SO LOW THAT I FIGURED

KOOL CAT WAS PROBABLY PLAYING

A TRICK ON ME.

THAT COIN WAS TAILS ON BOTH

SIDES, WASN'T IT?

A quarter with moose heads on each side spins.

Hamza says, I MEAN, IT WAS

A PRETTY FUNNY TRICK.

BUT NOW YOU'VE GOTTA DO ALL MY

CHORES FOR A WEEK.

Kool Cat hangs his head down low.

Hamza says, SEE YOU NEXT TIME FOR MORE

LOOK COOL!

[Sad meowing]

Hamza says, NO, NO. I WASN'T KIDDING.

THOSE ARE THE RULES.

[Energetic music plays]

End credits roll.

The TVO Kids logo appears.

[Whee, giggling]

The apartment eleven productions logo appears.

[Blink]

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

Vanessa gestures at the piece of paper that reads “Experimental Probability: Probability found by repeating an experiment and observing the results. Experimental Probability equals the number of times events occur over the number of trials.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, HI AGAIN!

WE'RE GOING TO NOW TALK ABOUT

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

LIKE WE TALKED ABOUT AT THE

BEGINNING OF THE EPISODE.

SO WHAT IS IT?

IT'S A PROBABILITY FOUND BY

REPEATING AN EXPERIMENT

AND OBSERVING OR WRITING DOWN

THE RESULTS.

SO HOW DO WE FRAME THAT IN TERMS

OF A FRACTION?

WE HAVE THE NUMBER OF EVENTS

THAT OCCUR,

OVER THE NUMBER OF TRIALS.

SO LET'S SHOW WHAT

I MEAN BY THAT.

Vanessa reveals a piece of paper with “Even” and “Odd” written down the side of it. The headings on the paper are “Result” (over even and odd), “Tally” and “Relative Frequency.”

Vanessa says, SO IF I HAD A DICE HERE,

AND IT'S A SIX-SIDED DIE, OKAY,

LET'S PRETEND IT'S FREE OF BIAS,

ALL THE SIDES ARE EQUALLY

THE SAME SIZE

AND I DID MEASURE THEM OUT,

OKAY, WHAT IS THE LIKELIHOOD

THAT I ROLL EVEN NUMBERS,

SO THAT WOULD BE, LIKE, LANDING

ON A TWO, FOUR, OR SIX,

COMPARED TO WHAT IS

THE PROBABILITY IF I LAND--

THAT I LAND ON ODD NUMBERS

WHEN I ROLL?

ONE, THREE, OR FIVE.

NOW OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WOULD SAY

THAT YOU HAVE A FIFTY-FIFTY CHANCE

OF GETTING ODDS--

EVENS VERSUS ODDS, OKAY?

BECAUSE WE HAVE THREE OUT OF

THE SIX ARE EVEN,

AND WE ALSO HAVE THREE OF THE

SIX NUMBERS ON THE DICE ARE ODD.

BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE

ACTUALLY TRY THE EXPERIMENT

WITH, LET'S SAY, TEN TRIALS.

HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET AN ODD

NUMBER WHEN I ROLL

VERSUS HOW MANY TIMES WILL I GET

AN EVEN?

IF YOU SEE, UM, HERE IS--

A TALLY,

OR A WAY THAT YOU CAN SET UP

YOUR OBSERVATIONS

FOR YOUR DATA,

SO WE HAVE OUR RESULT,

IT CAN EITHER BE EVEN OR ODD.

I'M GOING TO--

AS I ROLL THE DICE,

I'M GOING TO TALLY HOW MANY

TIMES I GET EVEN

OUT OF THE TEN ROLLS,

AND HOW MANY TIMES

I ROLLED AN ODD NUMBER

OF THE TEN ROLLS.

AND THEN WE'RE GOING

TO TALK ABOUT

RELATIVE FREQUENCY AT THE END.

THAT'S OUR FRACTION, OKAY?

SO LET'S GIVE IT A TRY.

LET'S TRY OUR EXPERIMENT

OF HOW MANY TIMES

WE CAN GET EVEN OR ODD

WHEN I ROLL THE DICE TEN TIMES.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

OKAY, SO MY FIRST ROLL

WAS A ONE.

SO ON MY TALLY SHEET,

I MARK A ONE UNDER ODD.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

MY NEXT, I ROLLED A TWO.

SO THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER,

I PUT A TALLY, OR A MARK

UNDER EVEN.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

ON MY THIRD ROLL,

I GOT FIVE,

THAT'S AN ODD NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A SIX ON MY FOURTH ROLL.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR.

THAT'S AN EVEN NUMBER.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

I GOT A FOUR AGAIN.

SO WE'RE OVER HALFWAY THROUGH

OUR TRIAL,

AND AFTER SIX ROLLS, I SEE THAT

I'VE ROLLED ONE MORE EVEN

THAN WHAT IS PREDICTED

THAT I WOULD HAVE ROLLED

AT THIS TIME.

I SHOULD HAVE,

UNDER THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

ROLLED THREE EVEN AND THREE ODD,

SINCE THEY'RE EQUALLY LIKELY,

BUT YOU CAN SEE HERE THAT MY

EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY

IS INDEED DIFFERENT COMPARED TO

MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, TWO.

EVEN RESULTS.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, ONE. ODD.

TWO MORE ROLLS, STAY WITH ME.

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, THREE.

NOW LET'S SEE

IF I CAN TIE IT UP.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, I HOPE I CAN!

Vanessa rolls her die.

[Thunk]

Vanessa says, OKAY, AND I GOT A SIX

FOR MY LAST.

OKAY, SO WHAT DOES--

WHAT DO OUR RESULTS SHOW?

OUT OF TEN TRIALS OF MY

EXPERIMENT,

I GOT SIX OUT OF TEN

WERE EVEN NUMBERS THAT I ROLLED.

WHICH MEANS I RECEIVED

FOUR OUT OF 10 TEN ROLLS

LANDED ON AN ODD NUMBER.

NOW IS THIS DIFFERENT FROM WHAT

WE WOULD HAVE PREDICTED

WITH OUR THEORETICAL

PROBABILITY? YES, OKAY?

SO WE SEE THAT EXPERIMENTAL PROBABILITY,

WHEN YOU'RE DOING THE ACTIVITY,

DOESN'T ALWAYS EQUAL

THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, LET'S TRY ONE MORE EXAMPLE.

Vanessa removes the tally paper for the die and reveals a paper with “red, blue, yellow, green” under the “Result” column. Vanessa picks up her spinner.

Vanessa says, I HAVE MY TRUSTED SPINNER HERE.

OKAY, WHAT ARE THE ODDS AFTER,

LET'S SAY, UM, EIGHT ROLLS--

OR EIGHT SPINS

OF ME LANDING ON THESE FOUR

SECTIONS, OKAY?

UM...MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WOULD SAY

THAT AFTER EIGHT ROLLS, SORRY,

UM, I WOULD HAVE ROLLED--

SORRY, SPUN RED TWICE,

BLUE TWICE, YELLOW TWICE,

AND WHITE TWICE.

WHY? BECAUSE THIS IS FREE OF BIAS,

I DID MEASURE THIS AS WELL,

AS BEST AS I COULD,

AND CUT THEM-- ALL SECTIONS ARE

THE EXACT SAME, OKAY?

UM, MY SPINNER DOES WORK

THE SAME.

I TRIED MY BEST TO DO IT WITH

THE SAME PROCESS

AND ENERGY FOR EACH PULL, OKAY?

SO THAT WOULD LIKELY BE ALMOST

THE SAME.

MY SPINNER MOVES THE SAME WAY.

IT DOESN'T GET CAUGHT

ON ANY NUMBER--

OR ANY SECTIONS, I SHOULD SAY.

SO EACH SECTION HAS AN EQUAL

AFTER-- UM, FOUR ROLLS,

EACH SECTION COULD TECHNICALLY

HAVE BEEN PICKED ONCE,

AND AGAIN, AFTER ANOTHER SPIN

FOUR TIMES,

EACH SECTION COULD BE PICKED

AGAIN, OKAY?

BUT LET'S SEE AFTER EIGHT ROLLS

WHAT COLOUR I LAND ON THE MOST.

AND LET'S SEE IF IT'S DIFFERENT

FROM THE THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

SO LET'S DO ANOTHER EXPERIMENT.

WE'LL START AT THE WHITE EACH

TIME, OKAY?

[Spin, clunk]

AND MY FIRST ROLL IS ON YELLOW.

MAN, DO I WISH

I WAS RIGHT-HANDED NOW.

OKAY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO THERE IS MY FIRST ROLL.

MY SECOND ROLL.

ACTUALLY, LET'S START FROM THE WHITE

SO I DON'T CHANGE ANYTHING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, THERE'S A RED.

START FROM THE WHITE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A BLUE.

START FROM THE WHITE.

OKAY, I'M CATCHING MYSELF

WITH THAT BIAS.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND A WHITE.

SO IF YOU CAN BELIEVE IT,

AFTER FOUR ROLLS, EACH SECTION

WAS PICKED ONCE, OKAY?

SO OUR THEORETICAL PROBABILITY,

FOR NOW, IS WORKING.

LET'S DO FOUR MORE ROLLS

TO SEE WHERE WE--

WHAT OUR EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY ENDS UP BEING.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, WE HAVE A WHITE.

I'M GOING TO ROLL THAT ONE AGAIN

'CAUSE IT GOT CAUGHT, SO...

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, BLUE.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, YELLOW.

(LAUGHING)

Vanessa says, SO FUNNY.

OKAY, AND BACK.

[Spin, clunk]

Vanessa says, AND THEN WHITE. OKAY.

SO WE HAVE ONE, TWO, THREE,

FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT ROLLS.

LET'S SEE WHAT OUR FINAL

FREQUENCIES, OR FRACTIONS, ARE.

OKAY, SO I GOT RED

ONE OUT OF EIGHT TIMES

ON THE ROLL.

OKAY, I GOT-- I ROLLED BLUE TWO

OUT OF EIGHT TIMES,

THE SAME AS ONE OUT OF FOUR

WHEN WE REDUCE IT

TO THE LOWEST TERM.

I GOT TWO OUT OF EIGHT ROLLS--

SPINS WERE YELLOW.

THE SAME AS-- WHICH AS THE SAME

AS ONE OUT OF FOUR,

OR TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

AND FOR WHITE, I RECEIVED THREE

OUT OF EIGHT--

SEE THAT, UM...

SPINS WERE WHITE.

SO ACTUALLY WE KNOW THAT THE

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

OF LANDING ON EACH SPIN TWICE--

EACH SECTION TWICE

DID NOT COME TRUE IN THIS CASE,

BECAUSE WE HAVE THE WHITE

SECTION BEING LANDED ON

WITH HIGHER FREQUENCY AS

COMPARED TO THE RED SECTION.

Vanessa picks up a deck of cards.

Vanessa says, OKAY, SO FINALLY,

IF I SAID TO YOU,

YOU HAVE A ONE

OUT OF FOUR CHANCE

OF PICKING A HEART

AFTER-- AFTER YOU SHUFFLE

AND YOU PICK THE TOP CARD.

OKAY, LET'S SEE.

WE'RE GOING TO TRY THAT TWICE, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF WE CAN GET

A HEART TWO TIMES.

SO THERE'S A ONE

OUT OF EIGHT CHANCE,

THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

TELLS US THAT I CAN GET A HEART

TWO TIMES. SO...

Vanessa draws the top card from the deck.

Vanessa says, A FOUR OF SPADES.

She shuffles the card back into the deck.

Vanessa says, I RE-- I PUT THAT INTO THE DECK

SO THAT WE HAVE A FAIR GAME.

WE'RE NOT CHANGING

THE NUMBER OF CARDS,

WE'RE NOT INTRODUCING

ANY BIAS TO THIS.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, THE SECOND.

OKAY, I HAVE A CLUB.

SO NEITHER TIME DID I

PICK UP A HEART.

OKAY, SO AGAIN, MY EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY IS DIFFERENT

THAT MY THEORETICAL PROBABILITY.

OKAY, SO NOT ALWAYS ARE THEY

THE SAME,

AND THAT WHY WE TAKE A CHANCE

AND WE PLAY THESE GAMES,

AND WE LEARN DIFFERENT THINGS, OKAY?

I WOULD LOVE FOR YOU TO WATCH

THIS NEXT VIDEO

FROM MATH XPLOSION, OKAY?

WE LEARN ABOUT HOW,

OUT OF A GROUP OF TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE,

TWO PEOPLE WILL LIKELY

HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.

HOW DOES THAT WORK?

JUST WATCH AND SEE.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE AFTER THE VIDEO.

The animated sun rises.

[Rap music plays]

Children rap, WHAT A HIT

IT'S NOT A TRICK

IT'S MATHXPLOSION

JUST FOR YOU, COOL AND NEW

MATHXPLOSION

[Energetic music plays]

Eric has red hair and a red beard. He stands in front of a table

filled with party supplies. He holds a metal bowl and cracks an egg into it.

Eric asks DID YOU KNOW THAT IF YOU HAD

TWENTY-THREE PEOPLE IN A ROOM,

LIKE YOUR CLASSROOM,

FOR EXAMPLE,

TWO PEOPLE ARE VERY LIKELY TO

HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY?

Eric adds white powder to the bowl.

He says, IT'S TRUE, IT'S ALL ABOUT

SOMETHING CALLED "PROBABILITY."

WITH PROBABILITY, WE CAN MEASURE

HOW LIKELY IT IS

THAT SOMETHING WILL OCCUR.

Eric pours milk into the bowl.

He says, AND BIRTHDAYS ARE A GREAT,

AND DELICIOUS, PLACE TO START.

Eric puts a lid on the bowl and snaps his fingers. He lifts the lid and reveals a fully-baked cake.

[Snap, sigh]

Eric says, AH! DELICIOUS.

NOW LET ME PROVE MY THEORY.

Eric stands by a screen.

He asks, WHERE DO I FIND TWENTY-TWO OTHER PEOPLE?

HMM... OH! I KNOW.

THE VIDEO CALL MY WHOLE ENTIRE

FAMILY MAKES TO ME

EVERY... SINGLE... DAY.

HERE WE GO. HEY GUYS!

Twenty-two people appear in small boxes across the screen. They appear to be Eric in different costumes. They all talk at once.

[Everyone talks at once]

Eric says, SO GOOD TO SEE YOU.

YOU GUYS LOOK GREAT! PERFECT.

WE'RE READY.

APPRENTICES, TO DO THIS,

YOU FIRST NEED

TO SET UP A TALLY.

I'VE CREATED MINE

BY WRITING DOWN

EVERYONE'S BIRTHDAYS.

PERFECT, I THINK EVERYONE

IS THERE. GREAT!

NEXT, COMPARE THE TALLY TO SEE

IF ANY DATES MATCH.

Eric looks at his tallies.

He says, UH...AH!

AUNT ERICA AND BABY ERICO,

YOU GUYS HAVE THE SAME BIRTHDAY!

MARCH TWENTY-THIRD.

DID YOU GUYS KNOW THAT?

OF COURSE YOU DID.

YOU'RE IN THE SAME FAMILY.

REMEMBER, THE MORE PEOPLE YOU

HAVE IN YOUR GROUP,

THE GREATER THE PROBABILITY

THAT TWO PEOPLE

WILL SHARE THE SAME BIRTHDAY.

MAKES SENSE!

WELL, THAT'S IT, GUYS.

THANKS FOR TUNING IN!

WE'LL SEE YOU SOON. BYE!

BYE, MOM.

BYE, GUYS.

[Everyone talks]

Eric says, THANKS FOR HELPING OUT!

Eric draws a coin on a chalkboard.

[Scratching]

He says, CHECK THIS OUT.

A GREAT EXAMPLE OF PROBABILITY

IS A COIN TOSS.

An animated stick figure flips a coin into the air.

[Slide whistle]

Eric says, BECAUSE THERE ARE ONLY TWO

SIDES OF THE COIN,

HEADS OR TAILS,

IT MEANS THERE ARE ONLY TWO POSSIBILITIES.

THERE IS A ONE-IN-TWO

PROBABILITY, OR CHANCE,

THAT THE COIN WILL LAND

ON HEADS,

AND A ONE-IN-TWO PROBABILITY

THAT IT WILL LAND ON TAILS.

The animated coin shows heads.

Eric says, HEADS! MY TURN FIRST! YES!

SO THERE YOU HAVE IT.

I'VE SHARED

YET ANOTHER AMAZING SECRET.

HOW TO FIGURE OUT HOW LIKELY

SOMETHING WILL BE

WITH THE SECRET OF PROBABILITY.

JUST REMEMBER,

THE MORE PEOPLE YOU COUNT,

THE MORE LIKELY IT IS

THAT SOMEONE WILL SHARE

A BIRTHDAY.

TRY IT OUT WITH TWENTY-TWO

OF YOUR OWN FRIENDS!

YOU'LL BE SURE TO WOW THEM.

AND REMEMBER!

IT'S NOT MAGIC, IT'S MATH.

[Harp music plays]

A candle burns in a piece of cake.

[Energetic music plays]

“MathXplosion.”

The animated sun shines.

Vanessa sits beside a piece of paper that reads “My game twenty-five percent probability.” In a column under “Result,” H, S, C, and D are listed. The headings beside “Result” read “Tally, R.F.”

Text beneath Vanessa reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK.

WASN'T THAT A GREAT VIDEO?

SO INTERESTING.

YOU SHOULD ASK THE STUDENTS

IN YOUR CLASS

WHO SHARES THE SAME BIRTHDAY,

AND SEE IF THAT PROBABILITY

WORKS OUT FOR YOU!

IN OUR CONSOLIDATION SECTION,

WE ARE GOING TO BRING EVERYTHING

WE'VE LEARNED TOGETHER

FROM TODAY'S LESSONS, OKAY?

WE ARE GOING TO LOOK AT CREATING

OUR OWN EXPERIMENTS

FOR PROBABILITY.

SO THIS IS WHERE YOU CAN BRING

IN YOUR SPINNER,

YOUR DIE, YOUR COINS,

AND YOUR CARDS,

AND TRY TO MAKE A FUN GAME FOR

YOU AND YOUR FAMILY OR FRIENDS.

OKAY, SO WHAT IS EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY, AGAIN?

IT'S THE PROBABILITY THAT'S

FOUND BY, UM,

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND

RECORDING THE RESULTS.

SO AGAIN, IT'S THE NUMBER OF

TIMES AN EVENT OCCURS

OVER THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TRIALS.

SO WHAT I WOULD LIKE FOR YOU

TO DO IS CREATE

YOUR OWN PROBABILITY GAME,

GIVING YOURSELF A PROBABILITY

NEEDED TO WIN.

OKAY, SO LET'S SAY MY GAME

REQUIRES A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY,

OR ONE OUT OF FOUR, TO WIN.

SO I'M GONNA SAY TO MY FRIENDS,

"I HAVE A DECK OF CARDS HERE,

OKAY, "AND THEY'RE FREE FROM BIAS,

I HAVE FIFTY-TWO CARDS."

THEY CAN COUNT THEM.

THIRTEEN FROM EACH SUIT.

"I AM GOING TO ASK YOU

TO PICK A CARD,"EIGHT—

EIGHT SEPARATE TIMES OR TRIALS, OKAY?"

SO WE PICK UP A CARD,

WE NOTE WHAT THE RESULT IS.

IS IT A HEART, IS IT A SPADE,

IS IT A CLUB OR A DIAMOND?

OKAY, WE WOULD MARK DOWN

WHAT IT IS,

THEN I REPLACE IT ON THE DECK

SO THAT THE ODDS

DON'T CHANGE, OKAY?

YOU COULD PLAY A GAME WHERE YOU

COULD REMOVE THE CARD

AND THEN YOUR ODDS WOULD BE

ACTUALLY BETTER FOR YOU, TOO,

IF YOU WANTED TO PICK A HEART,

IF YOU REMOVED A DIFFERENT CARD

FROM THE PACK.

BUT FOR TODAY, WE'RE GOING TO

KEEP BIASES ALL THE SAME.

SO THAT MEANS YOU HAVE EQUAL

ODDS THROUGHOUT

YOUR WHOLE EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY GAME.

OKAY, SO MY GAME IS--

I'M HOPING FOR EACH SUIT

TO BE PICKED TWO TIMES,

BECAUSE WE HAVE, UM, OUT OF

EIGHT TRIES,

TWO OUT OF EIGHT IS THE SAME

AS ONE OVER FOUR,

WHICH IS A TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY

TO WIN, OKAY?

SO LET'S SEE IF I CAN PICK EACH

SUIT TWO TIMES,

AND IF WE DO, I WIN.

OKAY, GAVE IT A GOOD SHUFFLE.

SO MAKE SURE THAT YOU CREATE

YOUR TALLY SHEET.

MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR

PROBABILITY GAME.

AND MAKE SURE THAT YOU EXPLAIN

IT TO YOUR FRIENDS OR FAMILY

OR WHOEVER YOU'RE PLAYING WITH

SO YOU UNDERSTAND THE RULES

AND HOW TO WIN.

Vanessa draws the top card.

Vanessa says, MY FIRST CARD IS A...

SPADE. SO AGAIN,

I'M MARKING THAT--

OR SORRY, THAT'S A CLUB.

SORRY, SORRY.

MARKING THAT DOWN.

I'M NOT TRYING TO CHEAT,

I PROMISE.

MARK THAT DOWN, AND I RETURN IT

BACK INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, MY SECOND, AGAIN?

THE JACK OF CLUBS,

MARK THAT DOWN.

OKAY, I COULD GIVE IT A SHUFFLE

AFTER EACH TIME.

I WON'T, BECAUSE I DIDN'T

THE FIRST TIME,

AND I DON'T WANT TO CHANGE THE

RULES OF THE GAME, OKAY?

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, SO THE THIRD CARD I PULLED

IS A HEART.

MARK THAT DOWN.

SO I'M ALMOST HALF WAY THERE.

REPLACE IT INTO THE DECK.

Vanessa draws the top card.

ANOTHER HEART.

OKAY, SO NOW I SEE THAT I HAVE

TWO HEARTS, TWO CLUBS.

SO NOW I GET TWO SPADES

AND TWO DIAMONDS,

THAT MEANS TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT PROBABILITY

FOR EACH, AND I WON!

LET'S SEE IF I CAN GET IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

A HEART.

[Sigh]

Vanessa says, THE QUEEN OF HEARTS THOUGH,

MY FAVOURITE.

MY FAVOURITE CARD IN THE DECK.

REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE A SPADE.

REPLACE IT.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, I HAVE CLUBS.

REPLACE IT.

SO I HAVE-- WHAT DO I HAVE?

ONE MORE. ONE MORE.

Vanessa draws the top card.

She says, AND I HAVE ANOTHER CLUB.

SO IT SEEMS AS THOUGH MY DECK

IS REALLY CLUB-HEAVY.

[Laughing]

Vanessa says, SO WHAT IS MY RELATIVE

FREQUENCY, OR WHAT IS THE FRACTION?

I HAD THREE OUT OF EIGHT FLIPS

ENDED UP BEING A HEART.

ONE OUT OF EIGHT ENDED UP

BEING A SPADE.

I HAD FOUR OUT OF MY EIGHT

UM, FLIPS, OR, UH--

CARDS THAT I PICKED

BEING A CLUB,

AND I HAD ACTUALLY ZERO

OF EIGHT TRIALS

END UP BEING A DIAMOND.

SO UNFORTUNATELY, WE DIDN'T WIN

OUR GAME, MY GAME,

BECAUSE I WAS LOOKING FOR

A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,

AND I DIDN'T RECEIVE IT IN ANY

OF THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY COLUMNS.

BUT THAT'S OKAY, BECAUSE WE HAD

FUN AND WE SHARED A LAUGH.

SO WHAT'S YOUR GAME GOING TO BE?

THINK ABOUT WHAT PERCENTAGE YOU

WOULD LIKE TO WIN,

OR WHAT PROBABILITY

AND PERCENTAGE I SHOULD SAY.

THINK OF A GAME USING ONE

OF THE DIFFERENT

PROBABILITY EXPERIMENTAL PROPS

THAT YOU HAVE,

AND MAKE THEM FUN,

AND SHARE A LAUGH WITH YOUR FRIENDS.

SO NOW IS AN EPISODE

OF ODD SQUAD.

AGENT OLIVE HAS TO USE HER

PROBABILITY POWERS

DURING A TOURNAMENT OF ROCK,

PAPER, SCISSORS

TO BEAT THE VILLAINS AND HEAD

BACK TO HEADQUARTERS.

CAN SHE DO IT? LET'S FIND OUT.

I'LL MEET YOU HERE

AFTER THE BREAK.

The animated sun shines.

Olives wears her brown hair in a tight ponytail.

Olive says, MY NAME IS AGENT OLIVE.

THIS IS MY PARTNER, AGENT OTTO.

Otto has black hair. Both Olive and Otto wear an Odd Squad agent uniform with a white dress shirt, red tie, and dark blue jacket.

Olive says, THIS IS THE FINAL FRONTIER,

BUT BACK TO OTTO AND ME.

WE WORK FOR AN ORGANIZATION

RUN BY KIDS

THAT INVESTIGATES ANYTHING

STRANGE, WEIRD, AND ESPECIALLY ODD.

OUR JOB IS TO PUT THINGS

RIGHT AGAIN.

[Whirring, Clicking]

Agents arrive in tubes. They shoot along the tubes and crash through the side.

[Screaming]

Dinosaurs run through Odd Squad headquarters.

[Roar]

A tube operator says, SWITCHINATING!

Ms. O stands at the front of a boat moving through colourful balls.

Olive asks, WHO DO WE WORK FOR?

WE WORK FOR ODD SQUAD.

The front of a file folder reads “Undercover Olive.”

Olive and Otto stand in a library. A librarian wearing glasses has black hair tucked behind his ears.

The librarian says, THANKS FOR COMING, ODD SQUAD.

Otto asks, WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?

The librarian says, WELL, THE PROBLEM IS THIS.

THIS BOOK JUST APPEARED

ON THE SHELF.

Olive asks, ISN'T THAT DUSTIN?

THE GUY WHO WORKS HERE?

EXACTLY. AND WATCH THIS!

"DUSTIN WAS CALM,

DUSTIN WAS COOL,

"AND THEN DUSTIN FELL OFF

OF A LIBRARY STOOL."

A light flashes by Dustin. He falls off a library stool.

Dustin says, HEY! AUGH!

Olive and Otto say, WHOA.

The librarian reads, "DUSTIN WAS FILLED

WITH SHOCK AND APPALLED,

"THEN DUSTIN GOT TRAPPED

IN A VERY BIG BALL!"

Light flashes. A transparent ball appears around Dustin.

Dustin shouts, HELP! PLEASE STOP READING

THAT BOOK!

The librarian says, I'M SO SORRY!

Olive says, I HAVE AN IDEA.

The librarian says, HUH?

Olive says, MAY I?

WITH A STROKE OF HER PEN,

OLIVE MADE DUSTIN FREE,

AND DUSTIN LIVED

HAPPILY EVER AFTER.

Light flashes and the ball disappears.

Dustin says, I'M SO HAPPY!

THANKS, ODD SQUAD.

Otto says, NO PROBLEM.

Olive and Otto crawl behind a bookcase and disappear.

[Buzz]

The librarian looks at the book and says, THAT DOESN'T EVEN RHYME.

[Elephant trumpets]

Olive and Otto walk into Ms. O’s office. Ms. O’s black hair is pulled into a bun at the back of her head.

Olive asks, YOU WANTED TO SEE US, MS. O?

Ms. O says, YES, SOMETHING VERY BAD

HAS HAPPENED.

Otto says, YOU MEAN ODD.

Ms. O shouts, NO, I MEAN BAD!

Ms. O uses a remote to turn on a screen. On the screen, a complex system interconnecting lines appears.

[Buzz]

Ms. O says, THIS MAP SHOWS WHERE ALL THE

SECRET ENTRANCES ARE

TO THE ODD SQUAD TUBE SYSTEM.

Olive says, LET ME GUESS, ONE OF THE

VILLAINS IN TOWN FOUND THE MAP.

Ms. O says, NO!

ALL THE VILLAINS IN TOWN

FOUND IT!

WE HAVE A RECREATION

OF WHAT HAPPENED.

Puppets in a puppet theatre fight over a map.

The puppets shout, I SAW IT FIRST!

NO, I SAW IT FIRST!

THE MAP IS MINE!

Ms. O says, AS WE ALL KNOW, VILLAINS ARE

REALLY BAD AT SHARING,

SO TONIGHT, THEY'RE HAVING A BIG

ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS CONTEST

AND WHOEVER WINS

WINS THE MAP.

Olive says, BUT IF ANY VILLAIN GOT THAT MAP,

THEY COULD CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH

ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD!

Otto says, OR CRUMP, BOING, WHOOSH

ANYWHERE IN HEADQUARTERS!

Ms. O says, I'M NOT FINISHED.

Ms. O claps and reveals a chalkboard with tally marks on it.

[Clap]

Ms. O says, HERE ARE TALLY MARKS

SHOWING HOW MANY VILLAINS

ARE GOING TO THE ROCK, PAPER,

SCISSORS PARTY.

Otto asks, WHAT ARE TALLY MARKS?

Olive says, TALLY MARKS ARE A FAST

AND EASY WAY TO COUNT.

Ms. O says, YOU TELL HIM, SISTER.

EACH ONE OF THESE LINES

STANDS FOR ONE,

AND THEN WHEN YOU GET TO FIVE,

YOU DRAW A LINE THROUGH

THE OTHER FOUR. LIKE THIS.

Otto says, OH.

SO THAT MEANS FIVE, TEN,

FIFTEEN, PLUS ONE EQUALS SIXTEEN VILLAINS

ARE GOING TO THE PARTY.

Ms. O says, LUCKY FOR US, THIS BAD GUY GOT

SICK AND CAN'T GO.

Olive says, SO YOU WANT ONE OF US TO DRESS

UP LIKE THAT VILLAIN,

BEAT ALL THE BAD GUYS AT ROCK,

PAPER, SCISSORS,

AND WIN THE MAP BACK?

Ms. O says, YOU KNOW, I WAS REALLY LOOKING

FORWARD TO SAYING THAT PART,

BUT NEVER MIND.

OLIVE, YOU'RE THE BEST RPS

PLAYER ON THE SQUAD.

YOU'LL PLAY.

Olive says, JUST ONE QUESTION, WHICH VILLAIN

AM I DRESSING UP AS?

[Dramatic music plays]

Ms. O hands Olive an envelope. Olive opens the envelope and her eyes grow wide.

Olive says, NO, NOT HER!

I TAKE IT BACK!

I WON'T DO IT. I CAN'T!

I JUST-- NO, I WON'T.

Ms. O smiles.

[Groan]

[Horse whinnies]

An ice cream truck is parked outside of a warehouse.

Olive sits inside the truck, dressed as a clown.

Otto says, ALL RIGHT, OLIVE, ONE MORE TIME.

WHAT'S YOUR NAME?

Olive says, KOOKY CLOWN.

Otto asks, WHY DO YOU WANT TO DESTROY

ODD SQUAD?

Olive says, SO THE WORLD CAN BE MORE KOOKY.

Otto says, LET'S HEAR THE LAUGH.

Olive laughs, HO-HO-HO.

Otto says, YOU'RE KOOKY THE CLOWN,

YOU HAVE TO BE MORE KOOKY!

Olive says, OKAY.

OOO-EE-OO! OO-EE-OO!

AH-HA-HA-HA!

Otto smiles and says, OSCAR, SHE'S READY.

Oscar rolls his chair towards Olive.

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.

THIS FLOWER CAMERA WILL LET US

SEE WHAT YOU SEE.

OH, AND HERE'S HOW WE'LL COMMUNICATE.

Olive takes an ear piece from Oscar.

Olive says, BUT WHAT ARE YOU GONNA TALK

TO ME ABOUT?

IT'S NOT LIKE YOU CAN READ

THE BAD GUYS' MINDS.

Oscar says, BUT THAT IS WHERE YOU'RE WRONG.

Otto smiles and pats Oscar on the shoulder.

Otto says, I KNEW YOU COULD READ MINDS.

Oscar says, I CAN'T READ MINDS.

BUT I HAVE TONS OF VIDEOS

OF BAD GUYS

PLAYING ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS.

OTTO AND I WILL LOOK AT

THE FOOTAGE, SEARCH FOR PATTERNS

AND MAKE A PREDICTION ABOUT WHAT

THEY'LL THROW NEXT.

Otto says, IMPRESSIVE!

BUT YOU ALREADY KNEW I THOUGHT

THAT, BECAUSE, YOU KNOW,

WE GOT A LITTLE THING HERE, RIGHT?

Oscar says, IF ANYTHING GOES WRONG,

AGENT ORSON WILL GET US OUT.

HE'S AN EXCELLENT DRIVER.

Olive peers at a baby sitting in a driver’s seat.

[Cooing]

Olive leaves the ice cream truck.

[Shoes squeaking, door slides shut]

[Energetic music plays]

A doorman says,

HEY, KOOKY, GOOD TO SEE YOU!

GOOD LUCK IN THERE.

Olive laughs, HOO-HOO-HOO!

Otto says,

OLIVE IS INSIDE.

YOU'RE DOING GREAT, OLIVE.

A man says, KOOKY.

Otto says, I'VE NEVER SEEN SO MANY VILLAINS

IN ONE PLACE.

Oscar says, UH-OH.

Todd says, SURPRISED YOU SHOWED, KOOKY.

HEARD YOU WERE FEELING FUNNY.

Oscar says, IT'S OLIVE'S OLD PARTNER,

ODD TODD.

[Sniffing]

Todd says, SOMETHING'S DIFFERENT ABOUT YOU.

Otto says, HE NOTICED OLIVE!

GET HER OUT!

Oscar says, WE CAN'T!

ORSON'S ON HIS LUNCH BREAK!

Orson eats dry cereal from a bowl on the steering wheel.

[Crunch]

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA CONVINCE

ODD TODD THAT YOU'RE KOOKY.

Olive says, UH... WOULD YOU LIKE A TOWEL?

Todd asks, WHAT FOR?

Olive sprays liquid at Todd.

Todd smiles and says, YEP. SAME OLD KOOKY.

Oscar says, THAT WAS A CLOSE ONE.

Otto says, TOO CLOSE.

Oscar says, OLIVE, YOU'VE GOTTA FIT IN WITH

THE OTHER VILLAINS.

MAKE THEM THINK

THAT YOU'RE ONE OF THEM.

Olive says, COPY THAT.

A woman has her hair in a tall beehive. She talks to a man in shiny green pants.

The woman says, I'M THINKING ABOUT GOING BY

"THE" PUPPET MASTER,

BUT THEN I'VE GOT STATIONARY, AND...

TO BE HONEST, I DON'T REALLY...

The man asks, DO YOU NOT LIKE IT?

The woman says, NO.

Olive says, HELLO, PUPPET MASTER.

JELLYBEAN JOE.

Joe says, GREETINGS, KOOKY CLOWN.

Puppet Master say, HELLO, KOOKY.

WHAT ARE YOU UP TO?

Olive says, WHAT HAVEN'T I BEEN UP TO?

SO MUCH BAD, EVIL VILLAIN STUFF.

LIKE YESTERDAY, I STOLE A DIAMOND.

[Gasping]

Olive says, AND I JUST THREW IT OUT.

Joe asks, WHY'D YOU THROW IT OUT?

Olive says, BECAUSE I'M KOOKY.

I'M KOOKY THE CLOWN!

Puppet Master says, THAT DOESN'T SOUND KOOKY.

THAT JUST SOUNDS LIKE

A POOR DECISION.

IT'S PROBABLY WORTH A LOT

OF MONEY.

Joe asks, DO YOU WANT US TO HELP YOU

FIND IT?

Olive says, NO NEED, IT'S ACTUALLY--

IT'S OKAY.

Puppet Master yells, HEY, EVERYONE,

KOOKY LOST A DIAMOND!

Joe asks, HAS ANYONE SEEN A DIAMOND?

Puppet Master repeats, A DIAMOND!

Olive says,

NO, ACTUALLY, I JUST REMEMBERED!

I FOUND IT IN MY POCKET!

Joe says, OH, GOOD. CLOSE ONE.

Joe and Puppet Master stare at Olive as she nods awkwardly.

[Silence]

Puppet Master points at a table and says, LOTS OF SALAD.

Todd says, ATTENTION!

Puppet Master says, OH GOOD.

Todd shouts, GATHER ROUND, VILLAINS!

[Rock music plays]

Todd says, TONIGHT, WE COMPETE FOR THE ODD SQUAD

TUBE MAP!

[Applause]

Olive says, WOW, NEAT.

[Horn honks]

Todd says, SHAPESHIFTER! THE RULES.

Shapeshifter walks to the centre of a boxing ring. She has blue bobbed hair.

She says, IT'S SIMPLE.

ROCK SMASHES SCISSORS.

Shapeshifter’s right hand turns into a rock and her left hand turns into scissors. Her rock smashes the scissors.

She says, PAPER COVERS ROCK.

One of her hands turns into paper and the other into a rock.

The paper covers the rock.

[Growling]

One of her hands turns into scissors, the other into a piece of paper.

[Snip]

She says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER.

[Laughter, applause]

Todd shouts, EVIL REFEREE!

WHO IS PLAYING WHO?

The referee has black hair and a beard. He stands beside a chart of competitors.

The referee says, JUST A QUICK REMINDER THAT MY

FIRST NAME IS WYATT.

EVIL REFEREE IS ACTUALLY

MY LAST NAME,

WHICH I DON'T ACTUALLY USE

ON ACCOUNT OF PEOPLE

JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS ABOUT ME

WITHOUT GETTING--

Todd and Shapeshifter shout,

WHO'S PLAYING WHO?!

Wyatt says, GLAD YOU ASKED, ODD TODD.

ROUND ONE,

WE'VE GOT TINY DANCER VERSUS

JELLYBEAN JOE.

BAD KNIGHT VERSUS SHAPESHIFTER.

PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD,

AND KOOKY CLOWN VERSUS FLADAM.

OLIVE'S PLAYING FLADAM!

LET'S GET TO WORK.

[Braying, applause]

Wyatt says, EVIL KNIGHT IS OUT, OUT, OUT!

[Whistle blows]

Wyatt says, PUPPET MASTER VERSUS ODD TODD!

READY, SET...THROW!

ROCK BEATS SCISSORS!

[Laughing]

Wyatt announces, ODD TODD MOVES ONTO ROUND TWO.

NEXT UP! FLADAM VERSUS KOOKY CLOWN!

[Dramatic music plays]

Fladam stretches in front of Olive.

Wyatt says, GIVING YOU A MINUTE TO STRETCH

OR TALK TO YOURSELF, WHATEVER.

Olive asks, GUYS, WHAT HAVE YOU GOT?

Oscar says, HEY, OLIVE.

WE WATCHED FLADAM PLAY THIRTY GAMES

OF ROCK, PAPER, SCISSORS,

AND WE TALLIED UP THE RESULTS. OTTO?

Otto says, FLADAM THREW ROCK ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR TIMES.

HE THREW SCISSORS ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR TIMES.

BUT HE THREW PAPER FIVE, TEN, FIFTEEN,

TWENTY, TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO TIMES.

THAT ACTUALLY MAKES SENSE

BECAUSE FLADAM LIKES FLAT THINGS

AND PAPER IS FLAT.

Oscar says, HUH. DID YOU JUST COME UP WITH

THAT ONE NOW?

Otto says, YES, I DID.

Oscar says, GOOD ONE.

Otto says, YEAH, I MEAN,

I WAS JUST THINKING,

FLADAM LIKES FLAT THINGS,

AND PAPER IS FLAT.

AND THEN BOOM! IDEA-LADA!

Olive says, GUYS!

Oscar says, SORRY. UH, FLADAM THROWS PAPER

THE MOST AMOUNT OF TIMES,

SO HE'S MOST LIKE TO THROW IT

AGAINST YOU, TOO.

Olive says, SO I SHOULD THROW SCISSORS

TO BEAT HIM?

Otto says, PRECISELY.

[Whistle blows, applause]

Wyatt says, TIME TO DO THIS.

ALL RIGHT. I WANT A NICE,

CLEAN FIGHT.

YOU EITHER THROW ROCK, PAPER,

OR SCISSORS.

NONE OF THAT DYNAMITE BUSINESS.

READY! SET! THROW!

[Dramatic music plays]

Wyatt says, SCISSORS CUTS PAPER!

FLADAM IS OUT!

KOOKY CLOWN MOVES TO ROUND TWO.

Olive yells, YES!

Otto says, YES!

Oscar says, WHOO-HOO, YEAH!

Fladam says, NO CLOWN BEATS ME!

I'LL FLATTEN YOU!

Joe runs to restrain Fladam.

Joe says, WHOA, MAN.

Todd says, HEY, GUYS, GUYS, GUYS!

IT'S OKAY. IT'S OKAY.

KOOKS, MAKE HIM A BALLOON ANIMAL.

CHEER HIM UP, COME ON.

Olive says, OF COURSE.

Olive blows into a balloon.

[Squeaking balloon]

Olive gives Fladam a long, empty balloon.

Olive says, IT'S A SNAKE. IT'S SLEEPING.

[Chuckling nervously, whistle blows]

Olive runs out of the ring.

Wyatt says, THAT'S LUNCH, EVERYBODY.

HOPE YOU LIKE QUICHE.

[Dramatic music plays]

Fladam says, LAST WEEK SHE MADE ME A FROG

KISSING A GIRAFFE

WHILE RIDING A UNICORN

WITH ONE BALLOON.

Todd says, SOMETHING IS UP WITH HER.

Joe says, YEAH.

A villain with short dark hair says, SOMETHING DOES SEEM UP.

Fladam says, BIGTIME.

Joe says, DEFINITELY UP.

Fladam says, ALL THE WAY TO THE TOP. BIGTIME.

The man with short hair says, YEAH...

[Silence]

Todd asks, SHOULD WE WALK AWAY NOW?

The other three villains say, YEAH.

The Odd Squad sigil appears. A rabbit with antlers says, TO BE CONTINUED.

[Military music plays]

Oscar says, WELCOME TO HEADQUARTERS. THE LAB.

Text reads “Welcome To Headquarters. The Lab.”

Doors slide open and Oscar walks into the lab. Agent Olaf stands beside a green table. He has short black hair.

[Whoosh]

Oscar says, GREETINGS, AGENTS.

WELCOME TO THE LAB,

WHERE I CONDUCT ALL SORTS

OF EXPERIMENTS,

BUILD GADGETS, AND--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF.

Oscar says, THAT'S OLAF.

I ASKED MS. O FOR SOME HELP

IN THE LAB,

AND SHE SENT ME AGENT--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, WHICH IS GREAT, BECAUSE I HAVE A

TON OF WORK TO DO

THE ONLY PROBLEM IS--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, HE WON'T STOP SAYING "I'M OLAF."

IN FACT, I STARTED

KEEPING TRACK.

THESE LINES ARE CALLED

TALLY MARKS.

Oscar holds up a small whiteboard and a marker.

Oscar says, A TALLY MARK ISN'T A NUMBER,

IT'S JUST A MARK.

IN THIS CASE, EACH LINE

REPRESENTS EVERY TIME

OLAF SAYS "I'M OLAF."

Oscar says, AS YOU CAN SEE, THERE IS ONE,

TWO, THREE OF THEM.

BECAUSE THAT'S HOW MANY TIMES

HE'S SAID IT.

THIS IS A QUICKER WAY

OF COUNTING,

ESPECIALLY WHEN THE THING THAT

YOU'RE COUNTING

KEEPS ON CHANGING--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says,...SO QUICKLY.

SEE? NOW THERE'S ONE, TWO,

THREE, FOUR MARKS.

BECAUSE OLAF SAID "I'M OLAF"

A TOTAL OF FOUR TIMES.

THIS IS A LOT QUICKER THAN

HAVING TO ERASE

AND REWRITE THE NUMBER EVERY

SINGLE TIME IT CHANGES.

WATCH, ANY SECOND NOW,

HE'LL SAY IT AGAIN. HUH.

GUESS HE'S GOTTEN IT OUT

OF HIS SYSTEM,

WHICH IS GREAT,

'CAUSE I HAVE A--

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, AND THERE IT IS.

I'LL PUT ANOTHER MARK DOWN,

ONLY THIS TIME,

I'LL DO IT LIKE THIS.

NOW I KNOW THAT THIS GROUP HERE

EQUALS FIVE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, MAKE THAT SIX. SO I'LL START A

NEW TALLY MARK OVER HERE.

FIVE, PLUS THIS ONE TALLY MARK

OVER HERE EQUALS SIX.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, LET'S MAKE THAT SEVEN.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, THAT'S EIGHT.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, NINE.

Olaf says, I'M OLAF!

Oscar says, TEN. AND THIS IS JUST TODAY.

YOU SHOULD SEE YESTERDAY.

Tally marks cover a large whiteboard.

Olaf says, I AM OLAF.

Oscar says, I'M GOING TO NEED

ANOTHER WHITEBOARD.

[Energetic music plays]

Odd Squad end credits roll.

Featuring:

Olive: Dalila Bela.

Otto: Filip Geljo.

Ms. O: Millie Davis.

Oscar: Sean Michael Kyer.

The animated sun rises.

[Upbeat music plays]

The paper on the board next to Vanessa reads “Theoretical Probability equals number of favourable outcomes over number of possible outcomes.”

Text reads “Junior four to six. Teacher Vanessa.”

Vanessa says, WELCOME BACK FROM THAT GREAT

EPISODE OF ODD SQUAD.

TO REVIEW, TODAY WE TALKED ABOUT

THE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN THEORETICAL PROBABILITY

WHICH IS THE NUMBER OF

FAVOURABLE OUTCOMES

COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF

POSSIBLE OUTCOMES.

AND WE DISCUSSED EXPERIMENTAL

PROBABILITY.

SO WHAT RESULTS DO WE GET AFTER

WE CONDUCT AN EXPERIMENT.

SO THE NUMBER OF TIMES

AN EVENT OCCURS

OVER THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF TRIALS.

WHAT GAME DID YOU COME UP WITH?

I'VE GOT A DIFFERENT WAY

TO EXPRESS--

OR TO WIN A GAME WITH TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT.

IF YOU WANT TO MAKE A SPINNER

WITH FOUR DIFFERENT SECTIONS,

AND YOU WANT TO DO EIGHT SPINS,

AND YOU WIN IF YOU GET EACH

SECTION TWO TIMES.

THAT WOULD BE ANOTHER WAY

TO PLAY A GAME

WITH A PROBABILITY OF TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT,

OR ONE OVER FOUR.

SO WHATEVER YOU DECIDE,

MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE FUN

AND YOU HAVE A GREAT TIME

LEARNING MATH.

AND CONTINUE ON WITH

THE POSITIVE AFFIRMATIONS

THAT WE'VE BEEN PRACTICING OVER

THESE PAST FEW WEEKS.

THEY'LL REALLY HELP BUILD YOUR

CONFIDENCE AND BE AWESOME,

AND REALLY ENJOY ENJOY YOUR TIME

WITH MATH.

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SPENDING

THE PAST SIXTY MINUTES WITH ME.

I HOPE YOU LEARNED SOMETHING,

AND I HOPE YOU SHARED A LAUGH

OVER THE PAST HOUR.

MY NAME IS TEACHER VANESSA.

IT'S BEEN AWESOME

BEING WITH YOU,

AND I'LL SEE YOU AGAIN ON

ANOTHER EPISODE

OF THE TVOKIDS POWER HOUR

OF LEARNING. TAKE CARE.

The animated sun shines.

[Upbeat music plays]

Text reads “TVO Kids would like to thank all the teachers involved in the Power Hour of Learning as they continue to teach the children of Ontario from their homes.”

“TVO Power Hour of Learning.”

## You are now leaving TVOKids.com

TVOKids doesn't have control over the new place you're about to visit, so please make sure you get your Parent or Guardian's permission first!

Do you have permission from your Parents / Guardian to go to other websites?